A drift mine is a type of underground mine. Were a tunnel OS dug at the side of a hill. Underground mining terms most commonly used: Adit – A level, horizontal drift or passage from the surface into a mine. Counting against underground mining are the costs, A drift running parallel to the ore body and lying in the footwall is called a footwall drift.
In coal mining: Access are three types of portal: drift, slope, and shaft. Where a coal seam outcrops to the surface, it is common to drive horizontal entries. Definition of drift Definition of drift in English: drift. verb [no object] 1 Be carried slowly by a current of air or water. 4 Mining A horizontal or. A drift mine is a type of underground mine. Were a tunnel OS dug at the side of a hill. Underground mining terms most commonly used: Adit – A level, horizontal drift or passage from the surface into a mine. Counting against underground mining are the costs, A drift running parallel to the ore body and lying in the footwall is called a footwall drift.
The Gold Rush is generally considered to be the period between 1848 and roughly 1860, during which time a flood of Argonauts entered California’s mining regions, prospected new areas, and eventually spread their activities to neighboring territories. The most enduring image of the gold rush is the eager, grizzled prospector kneeling alongside a stream with his pick and pan. Mining changed rapidly, however, from an individual endeavor to one based on group effort – hydraulic and drift mining - and, eventually, labor-and-capital industrial ventures – quartz lode miing.
The Gold Rush period was dominated by placer mining for gold. It was not until hard rock or deep mining equipment plans spread that other metals, along with gold, were mined. Placer mining refers to mining for gold that nature has freed from its associated rock and left in the form of nuggets, flakes, grains, or dust. Because this process was associated with erosion caused by water flow, gold found through “placering” was located in streambeds or in deposits left in ancient streambeds. During the Gold Rush period, placer mining was heavily dependant on manual labor and the use of water, so what is drifting in mining mining sites are typically found along streams, in river canyons, or in tributary canyons. Typical mining equipment during the period included cradles, long toms, sluice boxes, and hand-held equipment (pans, picks, shovels, etc.). As the years passed, more elaborate methods of placer mining (river mining with dams and water-driven pumps, ditch-fed sluicing systems, booming and other nascent versions of hydraulicking, and sinking drifts into ancient gravels) gradually replaced the miner with his pick and pan.
The placer mining methods used in California had been known for centuries. They were employed by the Spanish in the New World, and by miners in Georgia and North Carolina in the 1820s and 1830s. Not surprisingly, miners from those regions were influential in providing information about mining techniques (largely by example) to the largely inexperienced miners of the early years of the Gold Rush (Brereton 1976, 286-302). These included use of the familiar pan (batea), cradle (rocker), what is drifting in mining tom, and sluice box. Each was a refinement of the earlier – a cradle handled more auriferous material than did a pan (although ethereum zcash mining a pan what is drifting in mining often used as a final step), a long tom was more efficient than a cradle, and a sluice box more efficient (especially when linked in series) than a long tom. Each was eventually also more water- and capital-intensive to develop. Miners used these relatively simple methods to process surface placer deposits, usually near an available water supply.
As the Argonauts learned about placer deposits, what is drifting in mining, they turned to other methods that had more pronounced effects on the landscape. Miners quickly learned that rich placer deposits might be found in the Tertiary gravels left in the bed of ancient rivers in the mountains, what is drifting in mining. Millions of years old, the gravels were the remnant deposits of ancient rivers that had run through the region at mining work in russia angles to the modern streams, and were marooned as the Sierra Nevada’s granitic batholith was uplifted and changed the drainage pattern. Getting at these gold-bearing gravels required application of significantly different methods because they were overlaid with non-productive deposits that needed to be removed. The result was development of two different methods: hydraulic mining and drift mining.
The advent of hydraulic mining was among the major improvements to placer mining methods. It was one that had profound effects on California’s environment, leaving lasting scars on the earth, debris in the canyons and rivers, and a complex network of canals and ditches that shifted water to mining areas remote from their sources. Hydraulicking also required the application of investment capital, and employed the paradigm of industrialism (hired labor, resources and services acquired from other companies, etc.).
Hydraulic miners employed water under great pressure to wash away the overburden, and to run gold-bearing gravels through elaborate systems of sluice boxes. The water cannons most often seen in historic photographs, called monitors or “giants,” and were used to remove the “waste” or overburden; smaller monitors what is drifting in mining used to wash the gold-bearing gravels into the mines’ sluice systems.
Hydraulic mining’s heyday was from the 1860s through the mid-1880s, when one of the nation’s first environmental lawsuits led to its strict control and, gradually, to its eventual effective end. The main ditches feeding the hydraulic mines were typically eight to fifteen feet wide at the top, four to six feet wide at the bottom, and three or more feet deep. Steep hillsides and deep ravines were traversed with wooden flumes and heavy iron pipes 20 to 40 inches in diameter. These systems were often converted to use in the state’s hydroelectric generating systems what is drifting in mining after the hydraulic mining era passed (Logan 1981, 194). One of the most famous hydraulic mining sites has been preserved in the Malakoff Diggings State Historic Park; it represents a large example, but is by no means the only one in the region. In Calaveras County, the large and extensive hydraulic pits around Mokelumne Hill mark this type of mining.
Drift mining, a variant method of exploiting what is drifting in mining ancient gravels on high, what is drifting in mining, dry hillsides, involved driving tunnels (drifts) into the gravel beds and then processing the extracted material, what is drifting in mining. It was employed where the overburden was too deep for hydraulicking, or where water was less available. Drift mining took place under the lava cap on Table Mountain near Murphys and into the Tertiary deposits around Mokelumne Hill.
The final refinement of placer mining was dredging. Fct mining dredges are largely a 20th century invention. Although unsuccessful efforts, particularly along the Yuba River, were made in the 1850s; attempts at early dredging were largely abandoned in California by the 1880s. Dredge mining fields were located low in elevation, what is drifting in mining, typically where rivers or major tributary streams emerged from the mountains, such as around Jenny Lind in Calaveras County. The first successful bucket dredges in the United States appeared in Montana at Bannack in 1895. By the first decades of the 20th century dredging became efficient, profitable, and a big business; major investors in dredging companies were among the wealthiest people and corporations in the nation.
Dredging was less financially risky and more profitable than most forms of mining, because modern methods such as test holes could predict production levels with accuracy. A modern dredge would typically run 18 hours a day, seven days a week, what is drifting in mining, on an industrial schedule. The companies maintained machine shops to keep the massive equipment in repair. By 1905 the dredges used a system of revolving screens and shaking tables to separate gold from sand what is drifting in mining and gravels. The dredges in these locations operated into the mid-1960s.
Such machines caused substantial damage to the environment. Mining historian Spence noted that the tailing piles in long rows were the signatures of the industry. He also observed that, because their operation was largely before the era of environmental regulation and its wastes tended to be confined within the mining claim, the industry largely escaped serious regulation, what is drifting in mining. These tailing piles were often mostly sterile gravels and cobbles on which vegetation was slow to grow; requirements for “resoiling” were defeated in court and largely ineffective when attempted, what is drifting in mining. When dredging stopped in California, the available dredging equipment was largely disassembled and shipped to other gold fields around the world.
Quartz Lode / Deep Mining
Miners during the Gold Rush were quick bitcoin mining pci card realize that gold existed in quartz veins, and attempted to mine it. As early as 1849, famed guide and trailblazer Kit Carson discovered the Mariposa Mine with its ore-bearing quartz. Early miners used arrastras and other simple mechanisms to try to release the gold from the rock in which it was found, what is drifting in mining.
Quartz lode mining required the application of six general factors that, for the most part, most forms of simple placer mining did not. First, it required technical engineering expertise to design and build the physical plant for such a mine, both above and below ground. While at first this knowledge was often self-taught, as the years went on such expertise became more and more critical. Second, processing the ore involved the application of heavy equipment coupled with motive power. Ores had to be crushed to release their gold. Power for the crushers came from water wheels, compressed air, and later, electricity. Third, the ore what is drifting in mining required chemical treatment, through the application of mercury, acids, cyanide, and other solutions, to release the gold from the compounds in which it was found. Fourth, these mines, particularly the larger examples, needed hired labor to operate; of course, this meant that the mine needed to meet payrolls no matter what the day-to-day yield of the veins brought the company, what is drifting in mining. Fifth, as the years progressed, mining geologists became a requirement at major mines. Finally, the need for technical expertise, heavy equipment, what is drifting in mining, chemical plants, and labor meant that mine owners needed ready access dual mining nicehash nvidia financial markets and investors to fund development and operations. Investors needed surety that a mine’s claims were valid, and that its veins had potential yields to provide return on investment.
Quartz lode development did not experience a smooth upward path. By 1858 there were more than 280 stamp quartz mills, what is drifting in mining, each supplied by one or more veins. But by 1861 only 40 to 50 were still in operation. Numbers what is drifting in mining in the years that followed. Hand drills and black powder were common up to 1868, what is drifting in mining, when miners and mining companies began converting to advancements such as power drills and nitroglycerine-base dynamite. It took decades before these became common. Rock crushers, like the Blake Crusher, were introduced in 1861. As mining historian C.A. Logan remarked, “the self-feeder, the rock breaker, heavier stamps, and increased running speed gave the stamps greatly increased capacity.” Likewise, the treatment of mine concentrates became more technologically advanced as the years progressed. By the 1880s the frue vanner and endless rubber belt vanners more efficiently concentrated the stamp mills’ output, along with mercury tables, and other equipment. The development of chemical methods such as chlorination, used in conjunction with such concentrators, increased the plants’ efficiency further. Chlorination was used until 1896, when the cyanide process came into the industry (Logan 1981:195-196) .
1976 Mining Techniques in the California Goldfields During the 1850s. Pacific Historian 20 no. 3: 286-302.
Limbaugh, Ronald H., and Willard P. Fuller, Jr.
2004 Calaveras Gold: The Impact of Mining on a Mother Lode County. University of Nevada Press, Reno.
1981 History of Mining and Milling Methods in California. California Geology, September: 194.
Paul, Rodman W.
1965 California Gold: The Beginning of Mining in mining uefi Far West. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln NB.
Mining Methods - CalaverasHistory.orgCounting against underground mining are the costs, A drift running parallel to the ore body and lying in the footwall is called a footwall drift. Definition of DRIFT: In mining law. An underground passage driven horizontally along the courseof a mineralized vein or approximately so. Distinguished from "shaft. Drift definition: When something drifts somewhere, it is carried there by the movement of wind or water. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. Slope mining is a process of accessing valuable geological material, like coal. A sloping access shaft goes downwards towards the coal seam. How to achieve faster drifting in mining, some aspects SME Denver February 2007 Gunnar Nord Atlas Copco Rock Drill AB Sweden. The placer mining methods used in California had been known for centuries. They were employed by the Spanish in the New World Drift Mining Drift mining.
Underground mining terms most commonly used: Adit – A level, horizontal drift or passage from the surface into a mine. Drift definition: When something drifts somewhere, it is carried there by the movement of wind or water. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. How to achieve faster drifting in mining, some aspects SME Denver February 2007 Gunnar Nord Atlas Copco Rock Drill AB Sweden.
Underground Mining Terminology
When you get involved in the mining community, it’s best to know the mining terms you will be seeing on a regular basis. This will save a lot of frustration and you’ll be able to properly communicate with your fellow mining enthusiasts. Here is a list of some of the more commonly used mining terms and definitions when talking about underground hard rock mines.
Underground mining terms most commonly used:
Adit – A level, horizontal drift or passage from the surface into a mine.
Collar – The point at which a shaft intersects the surface or underground haulage level.
Crosscut – A level tunnel driven across the mineral vein.
Drift – A horizontal tunnel driven along the mineral vein
Headframe – The structure sitting over the shaft that holds the cables, pulleys, and sheaves used to raise and lower the skip in the shaft.
Headframes are the framework upon which the hoist system depends to haul men and materials in an out of a mine shaft
Hoist – The equipment that lowers and raises everything up and down the shaft.
Level – The elevation of the workings below the shaft, ie. 3700 Level is 3700’ below the collar.
Mucking – The process of removing the muck from the face.
Ore Bin – A receptacle for ore awaiting treatment or shipment.
Ore bins are fairly self explanatory, they can be found both inside and outside of mines. Underground ore bins are generally found underneath stopes and connect to haulage tunnels.
Raise – A vertical or inclined passageway driven between levels. Used as manways, ventilation passages, for support lines such as pipes and electrical lines, and as ore dumps for transporting ore to lower levels. Can be anywhere up to 300 feet in length.
Mine raises play an important role in connecting levels and stopes of a mine. They are also used occasionally for exploratory purposes to chase an ore body upwards.
Shaft – A vertical or inclined opening that starts on the surface and goes into the mine. The primary access to the various levels. May be up to 10,000 feet deep.
Stope – The area between two levels of the mine where mining occurs. Accessed through a raise, winze, crosscut, or drift.
A stope is any void left when ore has been removed. Stopes can be as small as a few feet across or as large as several hundred feet.
Tailings or Tails – The waste rock that has been through the mill and had the valuable mineral removed.
Vein – The mineralized zone that is clearly separated from the host rock.
Winze – A shaft that begins underground and goes down from there. Does not go to the surface.
A mine winze is a vertical shaft that starts and terminates underground. Winzes can be hundreds or sometimes even thousands of feet deep and are often accompanied by an underground hoist system.
While these are some of the more frequently used terminology, there are hundreds more terms that you may come in contact with. Here are a couple of sites that may be helpful for the less used words.
Remember to stay safe when entering or working around any abandoned mine sites. For basic safety tips please read this article.
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