Long tom mining

VANBIBBER & YOAKUM – Memorial for LONG TOM MINE at Fold3.com. The Long Tom: Top of Page. Mining with Long Toms (Source: Library of Congress) Once the easy gold was found, more inventive ways were needed to get gold. The Long Tom drilling system mounted on a rubber-tired mine carrier solves all the above problems and offers Cut & tight fill mining; Undercutting block caving;.
That required that the Long Tom be located on a riverbank or that ditches must be constructed to deliver water to the mining site. The first mining ditches in Gold Country were most likely built to supply Long Toms. Sluice Boxes. Sluice boxes were extended versions of the Long Tom. A tom may be operated by four men; two shovelling in, one forking out stones, and one shovelling fine tailings away. Where running water and a grade are available, a simple sluice is generally as effective as the long tom and requires less labour. VANBIBBER & YOAKUM – Memorial for LONG TOM MINE at Fold3.com. The Long Tom: Top of Page. Mining with Long Toms (Source: Library of Congress) Once the easy gold was found, more inventive ways were needed to get gold. The Long Tom drilling system mounted on a rubber-tired mine carrier solves all the above problems and offers Cut & tight fill mining; Undercutting block caving;.

The Long Tom was a device shaped like a long trough, used in the alluvial mining of gold. Its use evolved long tom mining an extended version of the long tom mining in the mid 1800s and its broad application took off during the California Gold Rush. The Long Tom featured a long washing box with a perforated screen to catch larger-sized rocks and debris, and under the screen, a riffle or sluice board to trap gold.

[edit] History

Long Toms were used for the small-scale mining of gold by prospectors known as the forty-niners, beginning in late 1848 just as the California Gold Rush was taking off. At that time, it took about six to eight men to exploit the operation of the Long Tom to its fullest potential.[1] By 1850, it had been widely adopted and was used in combination with hydraulic mining similar to sluices, the forerunner long tom mining the Long Tom. The pairing of Long Toms with hydraulic mining caused such environmental damage the the practice was eventually banned, marking one of the earliest environmental laws in U.S. history.[2] 

[edit] Process

Long Toms consisted of different components. A short receiving box, long tom mining, also called a launder, was placed at the front and used to take in gravel. Underneath this box was a longer, open, trough-shaped box varying in length from six to 20 feet (1.8 to 6.1 m), used for washing the gravel. Near the lower end of the wash box was a perforated screen or plate set at an angle; set underneath it was a short sluice box with riffles. Long Toms were usually staggered on a set of slopes with a one- to one-and-a-half-foot (0.3 to 0.5 m) drop between each. The Long Toms were spaced apart this way to assist in breaking up clay and releasing gold.[3] A constant flow of water washed and mining the box the gravel out of the receiving box into the washing trough. The action of the water enabled the gold to sink to the bottom of the gravel layer. Material less than an inch (2.5 cm) in diameter was released through a plate or screen at the end of the washing trough and into a riffle box. Finer gold was caught by the riffles in the riffle box. The finer gold was separated from ore concentration by panning. Another method was to amalgamate the gold using mercury, though this was considered highly dangerous and toxic.[4] Twice daily, the gold would be caught inside the riffles, removed, long tom mining, and panned.[5]

It typically took up to four men to operate a Long Tom. Two men would shovel the gravel into the receiving end of the device and another miner would be required to remove larger rocks with a shovel or twined pitch fork from the trough as the material his 470 mining forced downwards by the stream of water and gravity. A fourth man would shovel away the small rocks from the lower end of the Long Tom.

One of the disadvantages of using Long Toms is that they demanded a continuous source of fast-moving water. This often meant Long Toms were placed in close proximity to the riverbank. Sometimes ditches had to be dug to deliver water from a source directly to the mining site. Paddlewheels were even used to direct the supply of water towards Long Toms. Some of the first bitches dug in California were used for this purpose. Some of these ditches still exist and are now used for agriculture.[6]

[edit] References

  1. ↑California Gold Mining Techniques: The Long Tom. Andrea Franzius. Duke University. 2008-12-02.
  2. ↑Using the Long Tom in gold mining, long tom mining. John Carter. Helium. 2008-12-02.
  3. ↑Small Mining. Long Tom. Alluvial Exploration and Mining. 2008-12-02.
  4. ↑The Long Tom. Sierra Nevada Virtual Museum. 2008-12-02.
  5. ↑Using long tom mining Long Tom in gold mining. John Carter. Helium. 2008-12-02.
  6. ↑Early Gold Mining Methods. Sierra Foothill Magazine. 2008-12-02.
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Long Tom | MacLean Engineering

The Long Tom drilling system mounted on a rubber-tired mine carrier solves all the above problems and offers Cut & tight fill mining; Undercutting block caving;. Long tom. As mining operations became more complex, the long tom and the sluice came into widespread use. The long tom was a shallow trough 15 feet long and 15 inches high and often increasing in width near the low end and through which a . Prospecting - Miners Working a Long Tom. Gold mining is nature's lottery scheme. A man may work in a claim for many months, and be poorer at the end; or he may 'take. The long tom sluice box, long tom sluice, long tom mining tool, long tom gold sluice, long tom sluice box designs. Nov 26, 2008 · Paul loading the Back packable 10 foot long-tom sluice box and bucket tram. Old school style gold mining in remote locations. Sluice, hopper and flume. Location State: California County: Kern District: Long Tom Mining District.

That required that the Long Tom be located on a riverbank or that ditches must be constructed to deliver water to the mining site. The first mining ditches in Gold Country were most likely built to supply Long Toms. Sluice Boxes. Sluice boxes were extended versions of the Long Tom. The Long Tom drilling system mounted on a rubber-tired mine carrier solves all the above problems and offers Cut & tight fill mining; Undercutting block caving;. Prospecting - Miners Working a Long Tom. Gold mining is nature's lottery scheme. A man may work in a claim for many months, and be poorer at the end; or he may 'take.



Prospecting - Miners Working a Long Tom

Gold mining is nature's lottery scheme. A man may work in a claim for many months, and be poorer at the end; or he may 'take out' thousands in a few hours. It is a mere matter of chance. - Louise Clapp


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Long Tom

These miners are working a long tom. It allowed them to work together in a larger mining operation.

Kanaka Miners
A native Hawaiian, called a Kanaka, is working the long tom. Native Hawaiians were already present in California before 1848. Many of these Kanakas were employed by John Sutter, and were in the right place at the right time when gold was discovered. Word of the discovery of gold traveled quickly to the islands, on ships carrying out regular trade operations with San Francisco. Hundreds of Kanakas joined the rush to the gold fields.

I saw a lawyer who was last year attorney general of the King of the Sandwich Islands, digging and washing out his ounce and a half per day. -Thomas Larkin

Many white miners exploited their labor, and considered them expendable. Thomas Larkin boasted: Come to California, bring 100 Kanakas, 100 spades, shovels and picks with 100 wooden dishes and bowls. (Come), dig, delve and wash, fill your barrels, bury half your Kanakas, go back and make your homage to John Jacob Astor.

Women's Work
Men greatly out-numbered women in the mines, but there were many women finding creative ways of making a living. Many women worked as miners, but others saw opportunities that did not include the backbreaking labor of mining-they decided to mine the miners. What did miners need? Number one was food. This woman is a businesswoman, negotiating the price of her meat pies with a hungry miner.

I have made about $18,000 worth of pies. $11,000 I baked in one little iron skillet, a considerable portion by a campfire. -anon.

Another woman summarized the situation very well: A smart woman can do very well in this country-true there are not many comforts and one must work all the time and work hard, but there is plenty to do and good pay. It is the only country that I ever was in where a woman received anything like a just compensation for work.

Top: Long Tom, Photo by Christopher Richard

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