Waste rock in mining

By | 03.10.2018
3

Construction of a waste rock is considered to entail the preparation of the site to receive the waste rock as part of the overall mining process. A contractor may be employed to construct access roads, strip the site, prepare foundations, place underdrains, and install surface water management facilities. Waste rock, which consists of rock and target minerals in concentrations too low for economic recovery, is removed along with the ore. Waste rock includes granular, broken rock that ranges from fine sand to large boulders, depending on the nature of the formation and mining methods employed. Mining waste; phosphate rock mining, beneficiation, and processing waste; and uranium waste are three of the six special wastes identified. October 21.
Waste rock and tailings. The mining process generates two byproducts: Waste Rock: rock that is non-mineralised, or mineralised rock which contains insufficient gold to process economically. Tailings: the slurry that remains once the gold and silver have been extracted from the crushed ore at the processing plant. Tailings are distinct from overburden, which is the waste rock or other material that overlies an ore or mineral body and is displaced during mining without being processed. The amount of tailings can be large, ranging from 90–98% for some copper ores to 20–50% of the other (less valuable) minerals. Construction of a waste rock is considered to entail the preparation of the site to receive the waste rock as part of the overall mining process. A contractor may be employed to construct access roads, strip the site, prepare foundations, place underdrains, and install surface water management facilities. Waste rock, which consists of rock and target minerals in concentrations too low for economic recovery, is removed along with the ore. Waste rock includes granular, broken rock that ranges from fine sand to large boulders, depending on the nature of the formation and mining methods employed. Mining waste; phosphate rock mining, beneficiation, and processing waste; and uranium waste are three of the six special wastes identified. October 21.

Waste Rock – Tailings

Waste Rock

Mine waste is low grade material or overburden that has little or no economic value. However, it is not inert. Many of the same physical phenomena that occur in heaps will also occur in waste, but the operations of the two piles waste rock in mining much different. First, solution is not purposely added to extract a resource from waste, and in fact it is desirable to keep moisture as low as possible. Secondly, drainage that occurs from waste is likely not captured, which can introduce mine-impacted waters to the environment with negative consequences. Lastly, they typically have very large grain size, allowing moisture to move quickly from the surface to nearby water sources.

Characterization and monitoring of waste can help you to understand the week zones that allow meteoric waters to enter and transport mine drainage. In many situations, such as from metal and coal waste, significant amounts of pyrite will cause the waste to go acidic, which further enhances the transport of heavy metals into the uncontrolled environments, waste rock in mining. Consequently keeping control of the water is critical to elimitating potential environmental damage.

HGI provides the geophysical tools needed to understand the direct consequences of uncontrolled water moving vardiff mining waste rock piles. Technologies such as electrical resistivity, induced polarization (IP), and thermal monitoring create new awareness of internal hydrology generating actionable information, waste rock in mining. Electrical resistivity can track the high concentration of iron and other ionic species in water (termed acid rock drainage, or ARD) that are transported through the waste and groundwater. ARD that daylight as seeps along streams can also be traced back to its origination. IP and thermal methods will focus more narrowly on the oxidation of sulfidic minerals, such as pyrite. Together, thees geophysical tools can provide the data needed to Control, track, minimize or eliminate the release of ARD to the environment.

Tailings

Traditional tailings disposal has been to deposit a slurry of saturated material into an impoundment or dam. The tailings may come from a floatation circuit and have very small grain size and high water retention capacity. Typically, they also sit above a basement (usually crystalline) bedrock, unlined, waste rock in mining. A major concerns with these facilities is the long-term geotechnical stability and the retention of high levels of metals.

Unlike heaps, waste rock in mining, where moisture in the pile is controlled, tailings will have significant water and provide a large gradient for transport of the metals. This solution may leave the site and impact groundwater, wetlands, and streams nearby. Fortunately, there are methods available to provide reconnaissance-level characterization to trace the contaminants from source waste rock in mining impacted area. The composition that makes the tailings water dangerous to the environment happens to be the best target for geophysical methods due to its ability to readily transmit current, By using technologies such as electrical resistivity, induced polarization (IP), and thermal monitoring the solutions generated in tailings piles can core drilling mining tracked to their original sources so controls can be implemented to stop flow into unwanted areas.


 

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Mining Waste - Environment - European Commission

Mining waste; phosphate rock mining, beneficiation, and processing waste; and uranium waste are three of the six special wastes identified. October 21. Waste Rock – Tailings. Waste Rock. Mine waste is low grade material or overburden that has little or no economic value.. However, it is not inert. waste rock [′wāst ‚räk] (mining engineering) Valueless rock that must be fractured and removed in order to gain access to or upgrade ore. Also known as muck; mullock. Mining techniques and mineral processing are only covered as relevant to tailings and waste-rock management. The intention is to raise awareness on best available techniques and promote their use across all activities in this sector.

Waste Rock – Tailings. Waste Rock. Mine waste is low grade material or overburden that has little or no economic value.. However, it is not inert. Mining techniques and mineral processing are only covered as relevant to tailings and waste-rock management. The intention is to raise awareness on best available techniques and promote their use across all activities in this sector. Waste rock and tailings. The mining process generates two byproducts: Waste Rock: rock that is non-mineralised, or mineralised rock which contains insufficient gold to process economically. Tailings: the slurry that remains once the gold and silver have been extracted from the crushed ore at the processing plant.


In many mines throughout the world, waste rock and tailings are disposed of separately to form waste dumps and tailings dams. At Waihi the situation is unusual, in that waste rock is used to form engineered embankments that are progressively raised in order to ‘keep up’ with tailings production. This allows for sufficient storage capacity to ensure that the water within the tailings pond will be contained, even in extreme rainfall events. Storage capacity is provided for a 1200 mm rainstorm, (the Probable Maximum Precipitation), plus an additional 1.0 metre minimum freeboard.

There are two tailings storage facilities, known as Storage 2 and Storage 1A. Construction of Storage 2 commenced in 1987, and has reached its final crest height. It was decommissioned from tailings deposition in 2005. A substantial database spanning more than twenty years demonstrates that the performance of Storage 2 has been very good. The design of Storage 1A is based largely upon the design of Storage 2. While there are some technical differences, the description of Storage 2 can also be applied to Storage 1A.

A number of environmental considerations have been taken into account in planning and designing the waste rock embankments and tailings storage facilities:

  • identification of the best location for the tailings storage facilities, taking into account the status of the land with respect to ownership, geology, archaeological features, flora and fauna
  • the design and construction of the embankments, considering short and long term structural stability
  • ways that potentially significant adverse effects such as noise, dust, visual effects, acid drainage, and cyanide can be avoided, remedied and mitigated
  • the surface and subsurface drainage systems required to ensure that potentially contaminated water can be collected and managed
  • the water management and water treatment facilities required to ensure that there are no significant adverse effects on the surrounding rivers and streams
  • the requirements for rehabilitation and closure of the site.

To address these issues, advice has been sought from a team of experts including archaeologists, geologists, hydrogeologists, engineers, geochemists, rehabilitation consultants and landscape architects.

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