Iron mining in michigan

By | 13.01.2018
1

The Iron Riches of Michigan's Upper Peninsula 1845, and iron mining in Michigan officially began. A Catalan forge, producing wrought iron from ore. Iron Mountain is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 7,624 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Dickinson County, in the state's Upper Peninsula. Iron Mountain Iron Mine, Vulcan, Michigan. 1.7K likes. Guided underground mine tour. Travel 2600 feet into a real iron ore mine. See how our miners 4.9/5(102).
michigan iron mines There are three iron ranges in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, these are the Gogebic, Marquette and Menominee Ranges. The Gogebic was the last of the three great iron ore fields opened in the Upper Peninsula and northern Wisconsin. The Marquette Iron Range is a deposit of iron ore located in Marquette County, Michigan in the United States. The towns of Ishpeming and Negaunee developed as a. The Iron Riches of Michigan's Upper Peninsula 1845, and iron mining in Michigan officially began. A Catalan forge, producing wrought iron from ore. Iron Mountain is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 7,624 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Dickinson County, in the state's Upper Peninsula. Iron Mountain Iron Mine, Vulcan, Michigan. 1.7K likes. Guided underground mine tour. Travel 2600 feet into a real iron ore mine. See how our miners 4.9/5(102).

Smaller exploration firms are joining the rush too, searching for new ore deposits and studying known ones. One of them, Highland Resources of Vancouver, British Columbia, is spending $11.5 million devfee stop mining explore and develop potential mines, iron mining in michigan, including two copper mines near Calumet, Mich.

“The price of copper has held up even in the face of a worldwide economic downturn,” said Start ltc mining. Ross R. Grunwald, vice president for exploration for Highland. Regardless of recent dips in the market, Dr. Grunwald predicted worldwide demand and a looming shortage will send prices even higher.

Analysts say prices for metals like copper and zinc, as well as for iron ore, are likely to remain strong enough to warrant the flurry of projects. The JPMorgan metals and mining analyst Michael F. Gambardella said that even if some prices were to fall, factors like the low cost of making steel in the Iron mining in michigan make ccg mining in the region attractive for “quite some time.”

There are worries about the environmental fallout of the new mining, iron mining in michigan about how sustainable a mining-led recovery might be. But supporters of the new ventures want this to be a welcome homecoming for an industry that shaped the region. From the 1840s to the 1880s, the Upper Peninsula turned out most of the country’s copper and, by 1880, a large chunk of its iron ore. Newspapers, cities, roads and parks still bear the names of miners, minerals, mining companies and other things related to mining.

Evidence of the new mining activity is already visible. East of here, in Marquette County, towns like Big Bay have seen an increase in construction and temporary workers renting hotel rooms and homes. In Marquette — the largest city in the Upper Peninsula, with 21,000 residents — the Border Grill restaurant owner Dan Torres estimates that the Rio Tinto mine is increasing monthly sales by $500 to $1,000. Rio Tinto will make its first tax payment this July and is expected to pay $4.3 million to local authorities.

The enthusiasm for mines to reopen is especially palpable here in Ironwood, where dozens of iron ore mines once employed thousands of people. Most everyone in town had fathers or grandfathers who worked in the mines, and some residents worked there themselves. Many recall that the downtown used to be so full on Friday nights that the police would be needed to control traffic.

A mural in the municipal building shows a panoramic view of the once-bustling city. A small, dusty museum in an old train depot is full of miners’ clothes, tools and discoveries, including a block of iron ore.

But by the time the last of the mining companies departed in the 1960s, Ironwood had lost nearly half its residents and the bulk of its economic foundation. The population now stands at just under 5,400, and unemployment in Gogebic County, which includes Ironwood, is 10.7 percent.

While some people have steady jobs in logging, manufacturing or at nursing homes, many residents patch together seasonal jobs by working at ski hills and painting houses. Many men have left for North or South Dakota to work at oil fields, leaving families behind.

The hope is that mining will bring some of those people back. Signs in some windows and on the highway into town proclaim support for the new mining wave. Orvana has yet to put a shovel in the ground, but it has received hundreds of résumés, many dropped off by people who had left town and were back visiting family.

Marquette County, in addition to the Rio Tinto mine, is buoyed by Northern Michigan University and two surviving iron ore mines, among other things, so it does not share the unemployment problems of Gogebic County. But other erstwhile mining counties are in even worse shape. In April, the unemployment rate in Ontonagon County was 13.9 percent, in Keweenaw 12.9 percent and in Baraga 16.3 percent. By comparison, the statewide rate was 8.3 percent.

“We desperately need good-paying jobs for this area,” said Keith Johnson, director for the western Upper Peninsula region at the Michigan Works agency, iron mining in michigan. “It might be just 10 or 15 years, but it’s going to be 10 or 15 years that we can truly enjoy.”

In the woods outside of Marquette, iron mining in michigan, Rio Tinto last fall started blasting to reach an ore body that was identified in 2002 and is as much as 1,000 feet below the surface.

The mine’s footprint is a 130-acre, secure construction zone. Rio Tinto cleared all the trees except on a rocky outcrop sacred to a local Native American tribe, and has put up facilities including a water treatment plant. Next to the outcrop is a long, dark tunnel wide enough to accommodate a truck.

On a brisk day in April, red-clad miners drove a piece of heavy machinery called a rock bolter to the end of the tunnel and used automatic arms to pound in bolts and affix industrial-strength netting to the walls and ceiling to prevent rockfalls.

Rio Tinto plans to start pulling ore out in 2013. Adam Burley, president of Rio Tinto’s Kennecott Eagle Minerals subsidiary, was transferred from London to oversee the operation. He said the company hopes to develop more mines nearby and has a “portfolio of advanced, encouraging targets.”

Some 150 miles south, Hudbay Minerals, working with the public exploration company Aquila Resources, expects to apply iron mining in michigan year for permits for a mine that the companies estimate would create hundreds of jobs and generate $27 million in taxes.

The economic risk of the new efforts is that mining could be a temporary fix. Orvana, for example, plans to run its mine here in Ironwood for 13 years; it would need an additional seven years for construction and reclamation. After that, it is anyone’s guess.

“I think people in fact have significantly exaggerated expectations in terms of what mining is likely to do for the local economy,” said Thomas M. Power, a professor emeritus of economics at the University of Montana, who spent summers as child in this region. He warned that mining towns never succeed in the long term and would be better off diversifying in other ways.

There are environmental risks as well. Some are concerned the mining could hurt waterways and especially Lake Superior, the largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area. A collection of environmental groups said that state and provincial laws, and enforcement, are inconsistent and inadequate.

In Michigan, mining companies submit internal environmental assessments to the state. But Michigan does not require a iron mining in michigan stringent environmental impact statement that would involve third parties. And so far federal oversight has been largely delegated to the state.

The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, concerned about the pollution, has asked the United Nations to investigate. The United States in 2010 endorsed the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which recognizes the rights of natives to protect their lands and resources.

“No entity is really looking at all of these impacts at any one mine, much less all the impacts across the whole basin and really thinking about what would this mean for the region and Lake Superior, the headwaters of the Great Lakes,” said Michelle Halley, a lawyer for the National Wildlife Federation, which share accepted mining one of several parties suing to stop mining wireless communication Rio Tinto mine. The group has made suggestions on how Orvana could make its plans more environmentally friendly.

Just over the state line in Wisconsin, Gogebic Taconite dropped a proposed $1.5 billion, open-pit iron ore project after lawmakers failed to adopt a bill that critics say would have relaxed environmental regulations and limited public input in the permitting process.

Gogebic Taconite is now drilling for iron in Michigan.

“It’s great that it’ll cause jobs,” said David Hill, 29, an Ironwood resident who is out of work. “I’m just hoping they’ll do it safely. That’s No. 1. Sometimes it’s not about money, but what are you doing to the land that you live on.”

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Iron Mountain, Michigan - Wikipedia

Iron Mountain Iron Mine, Vulcan, Michigan. 1.7K likes. Guided underground mine tour. Travel 2600 feet into a real iron ore mine. See how our miners 4.9/5(102). All aboard the underground mine train to tour the Iron Mountain Iron Mine! IRON MINING (Ferrous Metallic Minerals) Regulated by Part 631: Ferrous Mining, ferrous or iron containing minerals are used in common manufactured products. Michigan’s iron bearing formations have long been sources of these important minerals. May 24, 2012 · With copper trading at high prices, a remote area of Michigan is rediscovering its mining roots, Gogebic Taconite is now drilling for iron in Michigan.

IRON MINING (Ferrous Metallic Minerals) Regulated by Part 631: Ferrous Mining, ferrous or iron containing minerals are used in common manufactured products. Michigan’s iron bearing formations have long been sources of these important minerals. The Marquette Iron Range is a deposit of iron ore located in Marquette County, Michigan in the United States. The towns of Ishpeming and Negaunee developed as a. May 24, 2012 · With copper trading at high prices, a remote area of Michigan is rediscovering its mining roots, Gogebic Taconite is now drilling for iron in Michigan.


Iron Mountain is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 7,624 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Dickinson County,[6] in the state's Upper Peninsula. Iron Mountain was named for the valuable iron ore found in the vicinity.[7]

Iron Mountain is the principal city of the Iron Mountain, MI-WIMicropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Dickinson County, Michigan and Florence County in Wisconsin.

Iron Mountain hosts a few points of interest such as the Millie Hill bat cave,[8]The Cornish Pump, and is located adjacent to Pine Mountain ski jump/ski resort, one of the largest artificial ski jumps in the world.[9] It shares Woodward Avenue with the neighboring town, Kingsford. In addition, Iron Mountain is known for its pasties, Bocce Ball Tournaments, World Cup Ski Jumps, and Italian cuisine. Iron Mountain was also named a "Michigan Main Street" community by Michigan GovernorJennifer Granholm in 2006. It is one of only thirteen such communities in the State of Michigan in 2008. It is also the hometown of Michigan State University men's basketball coach Tom Izzo and former NFL head coach Steve Mariucci.

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.04 square miles (20.82 km2), of which, 7.37 square miles (19.09 km2) of it is land and 0.67 square miles (1.74 km2) is water.[1]

Transportation[edit]

Bus service[edit]

Indian Trails provides daily intercity bus service between St. Ignace and Ironwood, Michigan.[10]

Major highways[edit]

Airport[edit]

The Iron Mountain area is served by Ford Airport (airport code: KIMT). Commercial air travel is provided by SkyWest Airlines, providing jet service as Delta Connection. Located three miles west of the city, the airport handles approximately 7,600 operations per year, with roughly 27% commercial service, 57% air taxi and 16% general aviation. The airport has a 6,501 foot asphalt runway with approved ILS, GPS and NDB approaches (Runway 1-19) and a 3,808 foot asphalt crosswind runway (Runway 13-31).[11]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
18908,599
19009,2427.5%
19109,216−0.3%
19208,251−10.5%
193011,65241.2%
194011,080−4.9%
19509,679−12.6%
19609,299−3.9%
19708,702−6.4%
19808,341−4.1%
19908,5252.2%
20008,154−4.4%
20107,624−6.5%
Est. 20167,428[3]−2.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 7,624 people, 3,362 households, and 2,025 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,034.5 inhabitants per square mile (399.4/km2). There were 3,784 housing units at an average density of 513.4 per square mile (198.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 0.5% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population.

There were 3,362 households of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.8% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.83.

The median age in the city was 42.4 years. 22.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 22.9% were from 25 to 44; 29.3% were from 45 to 64; and 17.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 8,154 people, 3,458 households, and 2,147 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,132.6 per square mile (437.3/km²). There were 3,819 housing units at an average density of 530.5 per square mile (204.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.67% White, 0.20% African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, and 0.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. 20.6% were of Italian, 14.0% German, 9.0% Swedish, 8.8% English, 8.8% French, 5.8% Finnish and 5.5% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.2% spoke English and 1.4% Italian as their first language.

There were 3,458 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.9% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.94.

In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, and 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,526, and the median income for a family was $43,687. Males had a median income of $38,309 versus $22,533 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,918. About 9.4% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over.

Media[edit]

Newspaper[edit]

The newspaper of record in Dickinson County is The Daily News.[13]

Television[edit]

  • W43AN (//WLUK-TV)
  • K47AF
  • W56BF (//WGBA, ch. 57 move possible and recorded carrying same station)
  • W59AQ
  • K69BA (//WNMU-TV)

Iron Mountain aerial cable system[edit]

Iron Mountain has a network of encrypted low-powered UHF repeaters, similar in concept to the subscription television services implemented in larger markets in the 1970s and early-1980s. Channels offered include:

Radio[edit]

Radio stations that are located within listening range of Iron Mountain include:

  • WNMU-FM 90.1 FM Northern Michigan UniversityMarquette, Phone National Public Radio
  • WMVM-FM 90.7 FM Goodman-Armstrong Creek, Wisconsin, Gospel
  • WVCM 91.5 FM VCY America Iron Mountain, Religious
  • WIMK 93.1 FM Iron Mountain, Phone Classic Rock
  • WZNL 94.3 FM Norway, Phone Adult Contemporary
  • WEUL 98.1 FM Gospel Opportunities Radio NetworkKingsford, Phone Religious
  • WIKB-FM 99.1 FM Iron River, Phone Oldies
  • WOBE 100.7 FM Crystal Falls, Oldies
  • WJNR 101.5 FM Iron Mountain, Frog Country[14]
  • WMXG 106.3 FM Stephenson, Phone Top-40
  • WHTO 106.7 FM Iron Mountain, 80's Rock
  • WFER 1230 AM Iron River, Phone Oldies
  • WMIQ 1450 AM Iron Mountain, Phone Talk[15]

Environmental importance[edit]

Iron Mountain's abandoned Millie Hill mine is home to one of the largest bathibernacula in the Midwest. Roughly 25,000-50,000 bats make their winter home there.

Menominee Range[edit]

Iron Mountain is located within the Menominee Iron-Bearing District, which covers southern Dickinson County and extends westward into Iron County. Iron ore was discovered in Dickinson County in 1849 and Iron County in 1851. Ore is produced from the middle Precambrian Vulcan Iron-Formation around Iron Mountain, and the Riverton Iron-Formation between Iron River, Michigan and Crystal Falls, Michigan. Both formations belong to the Animikie Group. The Vulcan is between 300 and 800 feet thick and consists of hematite and magnetite with quartz, while the Riverton is 100–600 feet thick and consists of siderite and chert.[16]

Historical importance[edit]

Iron Mountain was once a mining city when the Chapin Mine was up and running. The land that the Chapin Mine was formed on was discovered in 1879. It was discovered by two men, James John Hagerman and Dr. Nelson Powell Hulst. They had leased the land from a man from Niles, Michigan, Henry Chapin, hence the name of the mine. They began to sink shafts on the slope of Millie Hill. Then on July 5, 1879, Captain John Wicks and seven other men were sent into the forest with a wagon filled with tools to search for a place to set up camp. After numerous unsuccessful shafts the company was ready to shut down operation. Hagerman and Hulst had faith in the land and tried one more shaft. The shaft was 90 feet (27 m) deep and many months later, there was a successful hit that was at the heart of the iron ore. The original land was very swampy and filled with trees. To get rid of all this water the Chapin Mine Pumping Engine was created.

Iron Mountain is home of the largest steam-driven pumping engine in the United States.[17]Chapin Mine Steam Pump Engine (Cornish Pump) was patterned after the ones used in Cornwall in the deep tin mines.

Edwin Reynolds, chief engineer for the E.P. Allis Company (now the Allis-Chalmers Co.) of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, designed the steam engine in 1890. The engine's high-pressure cylinder has a 50-inch (1,300 mm) bore, and the low-pressure cylinder is 100 inches (2,500 mm) in diameter. The flywheel is 40 feet (12 m) in diameter, weighs 160 tons, and had an average speed of only 10 revolutions per minute. The drive shaft to the flywheel is 24 inches (610 mm) in diameter. The engine itself rises 54 feet (16 m) above the floor of the room. The designers estimate the weight to be 725 tons over all.

The pumping equipment utilized a reciprocating motion to a line of steel rods extending 1,500 feet (460 m) down into the mine, with eight pumps attached at intervals of 170 to 192 feet (59 m) along the rods. Each of the pumps forced the water to the next higher pump and finally out to the surface of the mine.

As the engine was designed to run slowly, the pumps had a capacity of over 300 gallons per stroke of the pistons. At ten revolutions per minute, this meant over 3,000 gallons of water poured out through a 28-inch (710 mm) pipe every minute. A total of 5,000,000 gallons of water could be removed from the mine each day. At that time the pump's estimated cost was nearly $250,000.

After only a few years of successful operation, the giant pumping facility was moved from the "D" shaft of the Chapin Mine. More than a million tons of the best grade ore found in the entire mine was discovered directly below the pump, so it was essential that it be moved for excavation. In 1898 the pump was dismantled and stored away until 1907 when it was reassembled on the "C" shaft of the Chapin Mine. The pump operated here until 1932 when the Chapin Mine permanently closed its doors. In 1934 the pumping engine was offered to the County of Dickinson as a relic for sightseers to visit. The pump remained exposed to the elements for nearly 50 years, and in 1982 a building was constructed around the pump by the Menominee Range Historical Foundation. Today the Cornish Pumping Engine & Mining Museum exists on the site.

The Chapin Mine Pumping Engine (Cornish Pump) was designated as a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Monument by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers on June 6, 1987 and has been featured in the History Channel's Modern Marvels Series on the World's Biggest Machines.

Notable people[edit]

  • James L. Adams, Minnesota state legislator
  • Randy Awrey 1975 DII National Champion football player at Northern Michigan University, current head football coach at Concordia University Chicago
  • John Biolo, former NFL player for the Green Bay Packers
  • Neno DaPrato, college All-American and professional football player
  • Robert J. Flaherty, filmmaker
  • Walter S. Goodland, Governor of Wisconsin
  • R. James Harvey, former US Congressman and Federal Judge
  • Tom Izzo, men's basketball head coach for Michigan State University since 1995
  • Johnny Johnson, baseball player
  • Gordon Lund, baseball player
  • Steve Mariucci, former NFL head coach
  • Thomas Lawrence Noa, Roman Catholic bishop
  • Phillip Rahoi, Michigan State Representative and Michigan State Senator for 6 terms; later Mayor of Iron Mountain.[18]
  • Gene Ronzani, former NFL head coach of the Green Bay Packers
  • Albert J. Wilke, Michigan State Senator

Climate[edit]

This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Iron Mountain has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.[19]

Climate data for Iron Mountain, Michigan (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1899–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)57
(14)
62
(17)
82
(28)
94
(34)
100
(38)
100
(38)
104
(40)
101
(38)
98
(37)
88
(31)
75
(24)
64
(18)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C)24.6
(−4.1)
29.1
(−1.6)
39.3
(4.1)
53.6
(12)
66.7
(19.3)
76.1
(24.5)
80.4
(26.9)
78.3
(25.7)
69.5
(20.8)
55.9
(13.3)
40.6
(4.8)
28.3
(−2.1)
53.5
(11.9)
Daily mean °F (°C)13.7
(−10.2)
17.5
(−8.1)
27.9
(−2.3)
41.5
(5.3)
53.7
(12.1)
63.6
(17.6)
68.0
(20)
66.4
(19.1)
57.6
(14.2)
45.0
(7.2)
32.0
(0)
19.4
(−7)
42.2
(5.7)
Average low °F (°C)2.8
(−16.2)
6.0
(−14.4)
16.4
(−8.7)
29.4
(−1.4)
40.8
(4.9)
51.1
(10.6)
55.6
(13.1)
54.5
(12.5)
45.8
(7.7)
34.0
(1.1)
23.4
(−4.8)
10.5
(−11.9)
30.9
(−0.6)
Record low °F (°C)−35
(−37)
−39
(−39)
−27
(−33)
−6
(−21)
16
(−9)
24
(−4)
35
(2)
30
(−1)
19
(−7)
8
(−13)
−10
(−23)
−26
(−32)
−39
(−39)
Average precipitation inches (mm)1.23
(31.2)
1.00
(25.4)
1.65
(41.9)
2.36
(59.9)
3.04
(77.2)
3.48
(88.4)
3.45
(87.6)
3.26
(82.8)
3.62
(91.9)
3.14
(79.8)
1.94
(49.3)
1.55
(39.4)
29.72
(754.9)
Average snowfall inches (cm)13.7
(34.8)
8.7
(22.1)
10.6
(26.9)
4.6
(11.7)
0.7
(1.8)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.3
(0.8)
5.9
(15)
13.9
(35.3)
58.4
(148.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)10.67.08.49.311.611.711.611.311.911.89.810.1125.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)10.36.35.62.10.30.00.00.00.00.44.08.737.7
Source: NOAA[20][21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ab"US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  2. ^ ab"American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  3. ^ ab"Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  4. ^ ab"American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^"US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^"Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  7. ^Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 166. 
  8. ^http://www.thingstodointheup.com/millie-hill-bat-cave. 
  9. ^"Pine Mountain Ski Jump". exploringthenorth.com. 
  10. ^"ST. IGNACE-SAULT STE. MARIE-IRONWOOD"(PDF). Indian Trails. January 15, 2013. Archived from the original(PDF) on July 4, 2014. Retrieved 2013-02-28. 
  11. ^http://www.airnav.com/airports/kimt
  12. ^"Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  13. ^"IronMountainDailyNews.com - news, sports, business, jobs - The Daily News". ironmountaindailynews.com. 
  14. ^"WJNR 101.5 FM, "Frog Country"". Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  15. ^On the radio.net.
  16. ^Carl e. Dutton; Paul W. Zimmer (1968). "Iron Ore deposits of the Menominee District, Michigan". In Ridge, J.D. Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933–1967. vol. 1. New York: American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers. pp. 539–542. OCLC 333389. 
  17. ^"The Cornish Pump, the Largest Steam Driven Pumping Engine in America, Iron Mountain MI". exploringthenorth.com. 
  18. ^"Index to Politicians". Political Graveyard.com. Retrieved February 12, 2012. 
  19. ^"Iron Mountain, Michigan Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. 
  20. ^"NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2016. 
  21. ^"MI Iron MT Kingsford WWTP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Geologic map of the Iron Mountain area
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