Definition of mining engineering from the Collins English Dictionary The dash (–) A spaced dash(i.e. with a single space before and after it) is used: at the beginning and end of a comment that interrupts the flow of a sentence. mining engineering. the branch of engineering dealing with the location and appraisal of mineral deposits and the laying out, equipment, and management of mines. Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that applies science and technology to the extraction of minerals from the earth. Mining engineering is associated. Mining engineering. Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the practice, the theory, the science, the technology, and application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Engineering definition, Mining | Define Mining at Dictionary.com. Mining definition, the act, process, or industry of extracting ores, coal, etc., from mines.
Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the practice, the ck mining, the science, the technology, and application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value. Mineral extraction is essential to modern society. Mining activities by their nature cause a disturbance of the environment in and around which the minerals are located. Mining engineers must therefore be concerned not only with the production and processing of mineral commodities, definition mining engineering, but also with the mitigation of damage to the environment as a result of that production and processing.
Mining engineering | definition of Mining engineering by Medical dictionaryEngineering definition, Mining | Define Mining at Dictionary.com. Mining definition, the act, process, or industry of extracting ores, coal, etc., from mines. Define Mining engineering. Mining engineering synonyms, Mining engineering pronunciation, Mining engineering translation, English dictionary definition of Mining. Define mining engineer. mining engineer synonyms, mining engineer pronunciation, mining engineer translation, English dictionary definition of mining engineer. Noun 1. Looking for online definition of Mining engineering in the Medical Dictionary? Mining engineering explanation free. What is Mining engineering? Definition of mining engineer in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of mining engineer. What does mining engineer mean? Information and translations of mining. Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the practice, the theory, the science, the technology, and application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment.
Looking for online definition of Mining engineering in the Medical Dictionary? Mining engineering explanation free. What is Mining engineering? Define Mining engineering. Mining engineering synonyms, Mining engineering pronunciation, Mining engineering translation, English dictionary definition of Mining. Engineering definition, Mining | Define Mining at Dictionary.com. Mining definition, the act, process, or industry of extracting ores, coal, etc., from mines.
Not to be confused with mining geology.
Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that applies science and technology to the extraction of minerals from the earth. Mining engineering is associated with many other disciplines, such as geology, mineral processing and metallurgy, geotechnical engineering and surveying. A mining engineer may manage any phase of mining operations – from exploration and discovery of the mineral resource, through feasibility study, mine design, development of plans, production and operations to mine closure.
With the process of Mineral extraction, some amount of waste and uneconomic material are generated which are the primary source of pollution in the vicinity of mines. Mining activities by their nature cause a disturbance of the natural environment in and around which the minerals are located. Mining engineers must therefore be concerned not only with the production and processing of mineral commodities, but also with the mitigation of damage to the environment both during and after mining as a result of the change in the mining area.
History of mining engineering
From prehistoric times to the present, mining has played a significant role in the existence of the human race. Since the beginning of civilization people have used stone and ceramics and, later, metals found on or close to the Earth's surface. These were used to manufacture early tools and weapons. For example, high quality flint found in northern France and southern England were used to set fire and break rock. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and galleries. The oldest known mine on archaeological record is the "Lion Cave" in Swaziland. At this site, which radiocarbon dating indicates to be about 43,000 years old, paleolithic humans mined mineral hematite, which contained iron and was ground to produce the red pigmentochre.
The ancient Romans were innovators of mining engineering. They developed large scale mining methods, such as the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts for hydraulic mining. The exposed rock was then attacked by fire-setting where fires were used to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water. The thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed. In some mines the Romans utilized water-powered machinery such as reverse overshot water-wheels. These were used extensively in the copper mines at Rio Tinto in Spain, where one sequence comprised 16 such wheels arranged in pairs, lifting water about 80 feet (24 m).
Black powder was first used in mining in Banská Štiavnica, Kingdom of Hungary (present-day Slovakia) in 1627. This allowed blasting of rock and earth to loosen and reveal ore veins, which was much faster than fire-setting. The Industrial Revolution saw further advances in mining technologies, including improved explosives and steam-powered pumps, lifts, and drills as long as they remained safe.
Salary and statistics
Mining salaries are usually determined by the level of skill required, where the position is, and what kind of organization the engineer is working for. When comparing salaries from one region to another, cost of living and other factors need to be taken into consideration.
Mining engineers in India earn relatively high salaries in comparison to many other professions, with an average salary of $15,250. However, in comparison to mining engineer salaries in other regions, such as Canada, the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom, Indian salaries are low. In the United States, there are an estimated 6,630 employed mining engineers, with a mean yearly salary of USD$90,070.
Mineral exploration is the process of finding ores (commercially viable concentrations of minerals) to mine. Mineral exploration is a much more intensive, organized and professional form of mineral prospecting and, though it frequently uses the services of prospecting, the process of mineral exploration on the whole is much more involved.
The foremost stage of mining starts with the process of finding and exploration of the mineral deposit. In the initial process of mineral exploration, however, the role of geologists and surveyors is prominent in the pre-feasibility study of the future mining operation. Mineral exploration and estimation of reserve through various prospecting methods are done to determine the method and type of mining in addition to profitability condition.
Mining engineers are involved in the mineral discovery stage by working with geologists to identify a mineral reserve. The first step in discovering an ore body is to determine what minerals to test for. Geologists and engineers drill core samples and conduct surface surveys searching for specific compounds and ores. For example, a mining engineer and geologist may target metallic ores such as galena for lead or chalcopyrite for copper. A mining engineer may also search for a non-metal such as phosphate, quartz, or coal.
The discovery can be made from research of mineral maps, academic geological reports or local, state, and national geological reports. Other sources of information include property assays, well drilling logs, and local word of mouth. Mineral research may also include satellite and airborne photographs. Unless the mineral exploration is done on public property, the owners of the property may play a significant role in the exploration process, and may be the original discoverer of the mineral deposit.
After a prospective mineral is located, the mining engineer then determines the ore properties. This may involve chemical analysis of the ore to determine the composition of the sample. Once the mineral properties are identified, the next step is determining the quantity of the ore. This involves determining the extent of the deposit as well as the purity of the ore. The engineer drills additional core samples to find the limits of the deposit or seam and calculates the quantity of valuable material present in the deposit.
Main article: Mining feasibility study
Once the mineral identification and reserve amount is reasonably determined, the next step is to determine the feasibility of recovering the mineral deposit. A preliminary study shortly after the discovery of the deposit examines the market conditions such as the supply and demand of the mineral, the amount of ore needed to be moved to recover a certain quantity of that mineral as well as analysis of the cost associated with the operation. This pre-feasibility study determines whether the mining project is likely to be profitable; if it is then a more in-depth analysis of the deposit is undertaken. After the full extent of the ore body is known and has been examined by engineers, the feasibility study examines the cost of initial capital investment, methods of extraction, the cost of operation, an estimated length of time to payback, the gross revenue and net profit margin, any possible resale price of the land, the total life of the reserve, the total value of the reserve, investment in future projects, and the property owner or owners' contract. In addition, environmental impact, reclamation, possible legal ramifications and all government permitting are considered. These steps of analysis determine whether the mine company should proceed with the extraction of the minerals or whether the project should be abandoned. The mining company may decide to sell the rights to the reserve to a third party rather than develop it themselves, or the decision to proceed with extraction may be postponed indefinitely until market conditions become favorable.
Mining engineers working in an established mine may work as an engineer for operations improvement, further mineral exploration, and operation capitalization by determining where in the mine to add equipment and personnel. The engineer may also work in supervision and management, or as an equipment and mineral salesperson. In addition to engineering and operations, the mining engineer may work as an environmental, health and safety manager or design engineer.
The act of mining required different methods of extraction depending on the mineralogy, geology, and location of the resources. Characteristics such as mineral hardness, the mineral stratification, and access to that mineral will determine the method of extraction.
Generally, mining is either done from the surface or underground. Mining can also occur with both surface and underground operations taking place on the same reserve. Mining activity varies as to what method is employed to remove the mineral.
Surface mining comprises 90% of the world's mineral tonnage output. Also called open pit mining, surface mining is removing minerals in formations that are at or near the surface. Ore retrieval is done by material removal from the land in its natural state. Surface mining often alters the land characteristics, shape, topography, and geological make-up.
Surface mining involves quarrying which is excavating minerals by means of machinery such as cutting, cleaving, and breaking. Explosives are usually used to facilitate breakage. Hard rocks such as limestone, sand, gravel, and slate are generally quarried into a series of benches.
Strip mining is done on softer minerals such as clays and phosphate are removed through use of mechanical shovels, track dozers, and front end loaders. Softer Coal seams can also be extracted this way.
With placer mining, minerals can also be removed from the bottoms of lakes, rivers, streams, and even the ocean by dredge mining. In addition, in-situ mining can be done from the surface using dissolving agents on the ore body and retrieving the ore via pumping. The pumped material is then set to leach for further processing. Hydraulic mining is utilized in forms of water jets to wash away either overburden or the ore itself.
Explosives are used to break up a rock formation and aid in the collection of ore in a process called blasting. Blasting utilizes the heat and immense pressure of the detonated explosives to shatter and fracture a rock mass. The type of explosives used in mining are high explosives which vary in composition and performance properties. The mining engineer is responsible for the selection and proper placement of these explosives, in order to maximize efficiency and safety. Blasting occurs in many phases of the mining process, such as development of infrastructure as well as production of the ore.
Leaching is the loss or extraction of certain materials from a carrier into a liquid (usually, but not always a solvent). Mostly used in rare-earth metals extraction.
Flotation (also spelled floatation) involves phenomena related to the relative buoyancy of minerals.It is the most widely used metal separate method.
Separating minerals by electro-characteristic differences.
Gravity separation is an industrial method of separating two components, either a suspension, or dry granular mixture where separating the components with gravity is sufficiently practical.
Magnetic separation is a process in which magnetically susceptible material is extracted from a mixture using a magnetic force.
Hydraulic separation is a process that using the density difference to separate minerals. Before hydraulic separation, minerals were crushed into uniform size; because minerals have uniform size and different density will have different settling velocities in water, and that can be used to separate target minerals.
Mining health and safety
Main article: Mine Safety and Health Administration
Legal attention to Mining Health and Safety began in the late 19th century and in the subsequent 20th century progressed to a comprehensive and stringent codification of enforcement and mandatory health and safety regulation. A mining engineer in whatever role they occupy must follow all federal, state, and local mine safety laws.
Main article: Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977
The United States Congress, through the passage of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, known as the Miner's Act, created the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) under the US Department of Labor.
This comprehensive Act provides miners with rights against retaliation for reporting violations, consolidated regulation of coal mines with metallic and nonmetallic mines, and created the independent Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission to review MSHA's reported violations.
The Act as codified in Code of Federal Regulations § 30 (CFR § 30) covers all miners at an active mine. When a mining engineer works at an active mine he or she is subject to the same rights, violations, mandatory health and safety regulations, and mandatory training as any other worker at the mine. The mining engineer can be legally identified as a "miner."
The Act establishes the rights of miners. The miner may report at any time a hazardous condition and request an inspection. The miners may elect a miners' representative to participate during an inspection, pre-inspection meeting, and post-inspection conference. The miners and miners' representative shall be paid for their time during all inspections and investigations.
Mining and the environment
Land reclamation is regulated for surface and underground mines according to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The law creates as a part of the Department of Interior, the Bureau of Surface Mining (OSM). OSM states on their website, “OSM is charged with balancing the nation’s need for continued domestic coal production with protection of the environment.”
The law requires that states set up their own Reclamation Departments and legislate laws related to reclamation for coal mining operations. The states may impose additional regulations and regulate other minerals in addition to coal for land reclamation.
- ^Hartman, Howard L. SME Mining Engineering Handbook, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration Inc, 1992, p3.
- ^Swaziland Natural Trust Commission, "Cultural Resources – Malolotja Archaeology, Lion Cavern," Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-02-05. .
- ^Peace Parks Foundation, "Major Features: Cultural Importance." Republic of South Africa: Author. Retrieved Aug. 27, 2007, .
- ^The Romans in Britain: miningArchived 2010-07-20 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^Heiss, A.G. & Oeggl, K. (2008). Analysis of the fuel wood used in Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age copper mining sites of the Schwaz and Brixlegg area (Tyrol, Austria). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17(2):211–221, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, .
- ^"Geologist and Mining Engineer salaries in India".
- ^"Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2011 – 17-2151 Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers". Occupational Employment Statistics. Bureau of Labor Statistics. March 27, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- ^Peters, Wiliam C, SME: Mining Engineering Handbook, 2nd edition, Volume 1, C1992, "Geologic Prospecting and Exploration," pgs. 221–225, ISBN 0-87335-100-2
- ^Gumble, Gordon E, Et al. SME: Mining Engineering Handbook, 2nd edition, Volume 1, C1992, "Sample Preparation and Assaying", pgs 327–332, ISBN 0-87335-100-2
- ^Gentry Donald W., SME: Mining Engineering Handbook, 2nd edition, Volume 1, C1992, "Mine Evaluation and Investment Analysis", pgs 387–389, ISBN 0-87335-100-2
- ^O'Hara, T. Alan and Stanley C. Suboleski, SME: Mining Engineering Handbook, 2nd edition, Volume 1, C1992, "Costs and Cost Estimation", pgs 405–408, ISBN 0-87335-100-2
- ^Ernest Bohnet, SME: Mining Engineering Handbook, 2nd edition, Volume 2, C1992, "Surface Mining: Comparison of Methods", pgs 1529–1538, ISBN 0-87335-100-2
- ^History of Mine Safety and Health Legislation
- ^20 CFR § 46.2(g)(1)(i)(ii)
- ^The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, § 103(f) and (g)(1)
- Eric C. Nystrom, Seeing Underground: Maps, Models, and Mining Engineering in America. Reno, NV: University of Reno Press, 2014.
|Best mining pc||326|
|ANACONDA MINING COMPANY||50|
|Definition mining engineering||821|
|Minecraft songs diamond mining||Gtx 1060 vs gtx 980 mining|