By product of coal mining

At Griffin Coal, we're focused on reducing the long term environmental impact of coal production, our five step process delivers a quality product and includes. Table 3. Underground Coal Production by State and Mining Method: Table 4. Coal Production by Coalbed Thickness and Mine Type: Table 5. Table 1. Loads Per Unit of Coal Production, by Mining Technique (tons per 1,000 tons coal produced) Surface mining Underground mining Waste characteristic Contour Area Conventional Longwall Liquid effluents 0.24 1.2 1 1.6 Solid waste 10 10 3 5 Dust 0.1 0.06 0.006 0.01. Note: Local conditions will form the basis for choosing the appropriate .
Burning coal produces a variety of solid wastes known as coal combustion waste or coal combustion products. These include coal ash (fly ash and bottom ash), boiler slag, and flue-gas desulphurization products. Coal. Reserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, Aggregate coal mine production; Aggregate coal mine productivity; Mine level data; EIA. At Griffin Coal, we're focused on reducing the long term environmental impact of coal production, our five step process delivers a quality product and includes. Table 3. Underground Coal Production by State and Mining Method: Table 4. Coal Production by Coalbed Thickness and Mine Type: Table 5. Table 1. Loads Per Unit of Coal Production, by Mining Technique (tons per 1,000 tons coal produced) Surface mining Underground mining Waste characteristic Contour Area Conventional Longwall Liquid effluents 0.24 1.2 1 1.6 Solid waste 10 10 3 5 Dust 0.1 0.06 0.006 0.01. Note: Local conditions will form the basis for choosing the appropriate .

This article is about technological innovations related to coal pollution mitigation. For the general concept of mitigation, see Coal pollution mitigation.

Clean coal technology is a illegal mining eve of technologies being developed to attempt to help lessen the environmental impact of coal energy generation and to mitigate worldwide climate change.[1] When coal is used as mining navigator fuel source, the gaseous emissions generated by the thermal decomposition of the coal include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), mercury, and other chemical byproducts that vary depending on the type of the coal being used. These emissions have been established to have a negative impact on the environment and human health, contributing to acid rain, lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. As a result, clean coal technologies are being developed to remove or reduce pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. Some of the techniques that would be used to accomplish this include chemically washing minerals and impurities from the coal, gasification (see also IGCC), improved technology for treating flue gases to remove pollutants to increasingly stringent levels and at higher efficiency, carbon capture and storage technologies to capture the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and dewatering lower rank coals (brown coals) to improve the calorific value, and thus the efficiency of the conversion into electricity.

Clean coal technology usually addresses atmospheric problems resulting from burning coal. Historically, the primary focus depth of mining on SO2 and NOx, the most important gases in causation of acid rain, and particulates which cause visible air pollution and have deleterious effects on human health. Concerns exist regarding the economic viability of these technologies and the timeframe of delivery,[2] potentially high hidden economic costs in terms of social and environmental damage,[3] and the costs and viability of disposing of removed carbon and other toxic matter.[4][5]

Technology[edit]

Several different technological methods are available for the purpose of carbon capture as demanded by the clean coal concept:

  • Pre-combustion capture – This involves gasification of a feedstock (such as coal) to form synthesis gas, which may be shifted to produce a H2 and CO2-rich gas mixture, from which the CO2 can be efficiently captured and separated, transported, and ultimately sequestered,[6] This technology is usually associated with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle process configurations.[7]
  • Post-combustion capture – This refers to capture of CO2 from exhaust gases of combustion processes.
  • Oxy-fuel combustion – Fossil fuels such as coal are burned in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air, which largely eliminates nitrogen from the flue gas enabling efficient, low-cost CO2 capture.[8]

The Kemper County IGCC Project, a 582 MWcoal gasification-based power plant, will use pre-combustion capture doge mining simulator CO2 to capture 65% of the CO2 the plant produces, which will be utilized/geologically sequestered in enhanced oil recovery operations.[9]

The Saskatchewan Government's Boundary Dam Integrated Carbon Capture and Sequestration Demonstration Project will use post-combustion, amine-based scrubber technology to capture 90% of the CO2 emitted by Unit 3 of the power plant; this CO2 will be pipelined to and utilized for enhanced oil recovery in the Weyburn oil fields.[10]

An early example of a coal-based plant using (oxy-fuel) carbon-capture technology is Swedish company Vattenfall’s Schwarze Pumpe power station located in Spremberg, Germany, built by German firm Siemens, by product of coal mining, which went on-line in September 2008.[11][12] The facility captures CO2 and acid rain producing pollutants, separates them, and compresses the CO2 into a liquid. Plans are to inject the CO2 into depleted natural gas fields or other geological formations. Vattenfall opines that this technology is considered not to be a final solution for CO2 reduction in the atmosphere, but provides an achievable solution in the near term while more desirable alternative solutions to power generation can be made economically practical.[12]

Other examples of oxy-combustion carbon capture are in progress. Callide Power By product of coal mining has retrofitted a 30-MWth existing PC-fired power plant to operate in oxy-fuel mode; in Ciuden, Spain, Endesa has a newly built 30-MWth oxy-fuel plant using circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) technology.[13] Babcock-ThermoEnergy's Zero Emission Boiler System (ZEBS) is oxy-combustion-based; this system features near 100% carbon-capture and according to company information virtually no air-emissions.[14]

Other carbon capture and storage technologies include those that dewater low-rank coals. Low-rank coals often contain a higher level of moisture content which deep core mining a lower energy content by product of coal mining tonne. This causes a reduced burning efficiency and an increased emissions output. Reduction of moisture from the coal prior to combustion can reduce emissions by up to 50 percent.[citation needed]

The UK government's is working towards a clean energy future and supports clean coal projects across the country. In August 2010, UK-based company B9 Coal announced a clean coal project with 90% carbon capture to be put forward to DECC. This would help the UK raise its profile amongst green leaders across the world. This proposed project, gasifies coal underground and processes it to create pure streams of hydrogen and carbon by product of coal mining. The hydrogen is then used as an emissions-free fuel to run an alkaline fuel cell by product of coal mining the carbon dioxide is captured. This UK project could provide a world-leading template for clean coal with CCS globally.

Demonstration projects in the United States[edit]

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began conducting a joint program with the industry and State agencies to demonstrate clean coal technologies large enough for commercial use. The program, called the Clean Coal Technology & Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI), has had a number of successes that have reduced emissions and waste from coal-based electricity generation.[15] The National Energy Technology Laboratory has administered three data mining my computer of CCPI funding and the following projects were selected during each round:[16]

  • Round 1 CCPI Projects
    • Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant
    • Demonstration of Integrated Optimization Software at the Baldwin Energy Complex
    • Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Co-Production Project
    • Increasing Power Plant Efficiency: Lignite Fuel Enhancement
    • TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers
    • Western Greenbrier Co-Production Demonstration Project
    • Commercial Demonstration of the Airborne Process
    • Integration of Advanced Emission Controls to Produce Next-Generation Circulating Fluid Bed Coal Generating Unit
  • Round 2 CCPI Projects
    • Airborne Process Commercial Scale Demonstration Program
    • Demonstration of a Mining elite dangerous Transport Gasifier
    • Mercury Species and Multi-Pollutant Control Project
    • Mesaba Energy Project
  • Round 3 CCPI Projects

These programs have helped to meet regulatory challenges by incorporating pollution control technologies into a portfolio of by product of coal mining regulatory compliance options for conventional and developmental coal-fired power mining bitcoins with cpu. This portfolio has positioned the U.S. as a top exporter of clean coal technologies such as those used for SOx, NOx and mercury, and more recently for carbon capture, consistent with a goal of deploying advanced coal-based power systems in commercial service with improved efficiency and environmental performance to meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations and market demands, leading to widespread, global deployment which will contribute to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The DOE continues its programs and initiatives through regional sequestration partnerships, a carbon sequestration leadership forum and the Carbon Sequestration Core Program, a CCS research and development program.[17]

According to a report by the assistant secretary for fossil energy at the U.S. Department of Energy, clean coal technology has paid measurable dividends. Technological innovation introduced through the CCT Program now provides consumers cost-effective, clean, coal-based energy.[18]

Clean coal and the environment[edit]

Further information: Environmental effects of coal

According by product of coal mining United NationsIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the burning of coal, a fossil fuel, is a major contributor to global warming. (See the UN IPCC Fourth Assessment Report). As 26% of the world's electrical generation in 2004 was from coal-fired generation (see World energy resources and consumption), reaching the carbon dioxide reduction targets of the Kyoto Protocol will require modifications to how coal is utilized.[19]

Coal, which is primarily used for the generation of electricity,[20] is the second largest domestic contributor to carbon dioxide emissions in the US.[21] The public has become more concerned about global warming which has led to new legislation. The coal industry has responded by running advertising touting clean coal in an effort to counter negative perceptions and claiming more than $50 billion towards the development and deployment of "traditional" clean coal technologies over the past 30 years; and promising $500 million towards carbon capture and storage research and development.[22]

Some in the coal industry (C2ES) and the U.S. Department of Energy refer to carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) as the latest in clean coal technologies. CCS is a means to capture carbon dioxide from any source, compress it to a dense liquid-like state, and inject and permanently store it underground. Currently, there are more than 80 carbon capture and sequestration projects underway in the United States.[22] All components of CCS technology have been used for decades in conjunction with enhanced oil recovery and other applications; commercial-scale CCS is currently being tested in the U.S. and other countries.[by whom?] Proposed CCS sites are subjected to extensive investigation and monitoring to avoid potential hazards, which could include leakage of sequestered CO2 to the atmosphere, induced geological instability, or contamination of aquifers used for drinking water supplies.[23][24]

Supporters[who?] of clean coal use the Great Plains Synfuels plant to support the technical feasibility of carbon dioxide sequestration. Carbon dioxide from the coal gasification is shipped to Canada where it is injected into the ground to aid in oil recovery, by product of coal mining. Supporters[who?] admit that carbon sequestration pascal mining gpu expensive.[25]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^"Coal vs. Wind". Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  2. ^Pearce, Fred (2008-10-30). "Time to bury the 'clean coal' myth". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-12-23. 
  3. ^"The True Cost of Coal"(PDF). Greenpeace. Retrieved 2008-12-23. 
  4. ^"Carbon Capture and Storage". University of Edinburgh, School of Geosciences. Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2008-12-23. 
  5. ^"Carbon Capture Plans get Reality Check". Discovery Channel, by product of coal mining. Retrieved 2008-12-23. 
  6. ^"Pre-combustion Carbon Capture Research". Energy.gov. Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 22 New cryptocurrency mining 2014. 
  7. ^"Picking a Winner in Clean-Coal Technology". 
  8. ^"R&D Facts - Oxy-Fuel Combustion"(PDF), by product of coal mining. National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  9. ^"IGCC Project Examples - Kemper County IGCC Project". Gasifipedia. National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  10. ^"Boundary Dam Integrated Carbon Capture and Sequestration Demonstration Project". Global CCS Institute. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  11. ^"Vattenfall's Project on CSS". Vattenfall. Archived from the original on 2010-10-26. 
  12. ^ abhttp://discovermagazine.com/2009/feb/25-can-clean-coal-actually-work/?searchterm=clean%20coal "Can Clean Coal Actually Work?" article in Feb. 2009 issue, p. 18, Retrieved 2009-05-11
  13. ^"Overview of Oxy-fuel Combustion Technology for CO2 Capture". Cornerstone Magazine, by product of coal mining. World Coal Association. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  14. ^[leads nowhere previously cited - http://ww25.thermoenergy.com/Zm9yY2VTUg]
  15. ^"Clean Coal Technology & The Clean Coal Power Initiative". U.S. Department of Energy. 
  16. ^"Major Demonstrations: Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI)". NETL. Retrieved 1 May 2012. 
  17. ^"Carbon Sequestration". U.S. Department of Energy. 
  18. ^"Clean Coal Technology: The Investment Pays Off"(PDF). U.S. Department of Energy. 
  19. ^"CRS Issue Brief for Congress - IB89005: Global Climate Change". National Council for Science and the Environment. August 13, 2001. Archived from the original on December bfgminer cpu mining, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-13. 
  20. ^"U.S. Coal Supply and Demand". Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  21. ^"Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12 Values from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A". Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  22. ^ ab"ACCCE Details More than 80 CO2 Capture and Storage Projects". America's Power. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  23. ^"AWWA warns Congress about CO2 injection concerns". American Water Works Association. July 29, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-27. [permanent dead link]
  24. ^"'Clean coal' push concerns environmental activists". Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition. October 16, 2005. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  25. ^"Carbonomics: How to Fix the Climate and Charge it to OPEC". SSRN. SSRN 1300126. 

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Magazines and Journals[edit]

Websites[edit]

Government Web Sites[edit]

University Web Sites[edit]

An oxyfuel CCS power plant operation processes the exhaust gases so as to separate the CO2 so that it may be stored or sequestered
Источник:




Coal - Mineral Fact Sheets - Australian Mines Atlas

Table 1. Loads Per Unit of Coal Production, by Mining Technique (tons per 1,000 tons coal produced) Surface mining Underground mining Waste characteristic Contour Area Conventional Longwall Liquid effluents 0.24 1.2 1 1.6 Solid waste 10 10 3 5 Dust 0.1 0.06 0.006 0.01. Note: Local conditions will form the basis for choosing the appropriate . The overall coal mining process consists of several sequential stages: (1) exploration of a potentially economic coal seam to assess minable reserves, environmental issues, marketable reserves, potential markets, and permitting risks; (2) analysis and selection of a mining plan; (3) securing the markets; (4) developing the mine; (5) extracting the . Coal Ash Is More Radioactive Than Nuclear Waste. such as mining accidents, acid the fly ash emitted by a power plant—a by-product from burning coal for. Coal mining in the United States is an industry in transition. Production in 2016 was down 37% from the peak production of 1,162.7 million tons in 2006. Annual brown coal production is about 68 million tonnes, all from Victoria and with over 98% from the La Trobe Valley. Australia produces about 7% of the world's brown coal and is ranked fifth largest after Germany (21%), Russia (10%), Turkey (9%) and USA (8%). Coal Mining in Pennsylvania Consequently, bituminous coal production in western Pennsylvania grew principally with western population growth.

Annual brown coal production is about 68 million tonnes, all from Victoria and with over 98% from the La Trobe Valley. Australia produces about 7% of the world's brown coal and is ranked fifth largest after Germany (21%), Russia (10%), Turkey (9%) and USA (8%). Clean coal technology is a collection of technologies being Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Mountaintop removal mining; Refined coal;. Coal mining in the United States is an industry in transition. Production in 2016 was down 37% from the peak production of 1,162.7 million tons in 2006.


Introduction

Coal is a combustible rock of organic origin composed mainly of carbon (50-98 per cent), hydrogen (3-13 per cent) and oxygen, with lesser amounts of nitrogen, sulphur and other elements. Some water is always present, as are grains of inorganic matter that form an incombustible residue known as ash.

Coal is classified by rank, which is a measure of the amount of alteration it has undergone during formation. Consecutive stages in evolution of rank, from an initial peat stage, are brown coal (or lignite), sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, and anthracite. Increase in rank is due to a gradual increase in temperature and pressure that results in a decrease in water content and therefore an increase in carbon content. A continuous gradation occurs between these ranks. Sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal and anthracite are together known as black coal.

The Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the early 19th century was fuelled by coal. Then, in the 1950s and 1960s, it was eclipsed by petroleum as the world's most used fuel, but the oil shocks of the 1970s resulted in a worldwide resurgence of interest in coal as an energy source because of its relative abundance.

Occurrence

Coal is formed from accumulated vegetable matter that has been altered by decay and by various amounts of heat and pressure over millions of years. The progressive transformation of coal is referred to as coalification. Interlayered with other sedimentary rocks, it forms beds ranging from less than a millimetre to many metres thick. Such a bed, or several beds separated by thin layers of shale, siltstone or sandstone (dirt bands or partings), constitute a coal seam. Major coal deposits have been formed in nearly every geological age since the Carboniferous (350-250 million years ago). The considerable diversity of coal type (organic composition), grade (mineral matter content) and rank (degree of coalification) depends on the differences in the mode of formation. Coal is widely distributed in the world being located on every continent and in over 70 countries. In Australia coal occurs in all States and the Northern Territory.

Black Coal

Black coal is so called because of its black colour. It varies from having a bright, shiny lustre to being very dull and from being relatively hard to soft. It has higher energy and lower moisture content than brown coal. Most are of Permian age (about 250 million years old), but lower-rank, younger deposits of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous ages are also important. Permian black coal from New South Wales and Queensland is exported in large quantities to Japan, Europe, South-East Asia, and the Americas.

Resources and Deposits

In New South Wales black coal is mined near the eastern and western edges of the Sydney-Gunnedah Basin, where the seams are relatively close to the surface. Mining centred along the western edge, where most of the production is from underground mines, is in the Wollongong-Appin-Bulli area and in the Lithgow-Mudgee area. Mines near the eastern edge of the basin are spread along the Hunter Valley from Newcastle in the south to Muswellbrook in the north; many of these mines are open-cut. Further north mining also occurs at Yarrawonga near Gunnedah. Southern Coalfield mines such as Appin , Tahmoor and Metropolitan produce mainly coking coal.  Mines such as Ulan and Springvale in the Western Coalfield and Mandalong and Westside in the Newcastle Coalfield produce mainly thermal coal.  In the Hunter Valley Coalfield both soft coking and thermal coal products are produced from mines such as Hunter Valley Operations and Bulga.

In Queensland, the coal industry has grown rapidly from the early 1970s. Most production has been of export coking coal from mines such as Goonyella and Kestrel in the Bowen Basin. However, thermal coal mines such as those at Newlands and Rolleston and mines near Brisbane have increased the proportion of steaming coal that is mined and exported. The Bowen Basin extends south from Collinsville to beyond Blackwater and Moura . A locally important thermal coal mine operates in the Callide Basin. Significant thermal coal resources occur in the Surat and Moreton Basins between Wandoan and Millmerran and mines are operating at Wilkie Creek , New Acland and Commodore . During the 1990s Pulverised Coal Injection (PCI) coals increased in importance with a number of PCI mines now operating in the Bowen Basin including Jellinbah East and Coppabella.

Other locally significant black coal mines include Muja and Premier (Western Australia), Leigh Creek (South Australia) and Duncan (Tasmania).

In 2009 economically recoverable black coal resources were reported to be 43.8 billion tonnes with over 96% of these resources in New South Wales and Queensland. Australia has about 7% of the world's economically recoverable black coal and ranks fifth behind USA (31%), Russia (22%), China (14%) and India (8%).

Mining

In open-cut mining, rock covering the coal seam (the overburden) is blasted and removed by large draglines and/or electric or hydraulic shovels and trucks. Modern equipment and techniques allow open-cut mines to be operated to depths much greater than the 60m that was considered a maximum depth for many years. The use of advanced methods is typified in Queensland at the Goonyella mine where the upper section of overburden is removed by bucket wheel excavator followed by a truck and shovel operation that removes more overburden before the deeper overburden is stripped by dragline.

Underground coal mining in Australia is done by either the bord and pillar or longwall method. In bord and pillar mining, coal is extracted in a series of parallel tunnels (bords) cut at right angles by another series (cut-throughs). This leaves blocks of coal known as pillars which may be extracted in a second stage of mining. Longwall mining results in large blocks of coal being totally extracted and the mine roof allowed to collapse behind the working face. Generally, longwall techniques result in higher productivity and higher recovery of coal than does the bord and pillar method.

Highwall mining was introduced into Australia in the early 1990s and uses the void left by open-cut mining to employ remote underground mining equipment to extract coal. Australia's first punch longwall mining operation commenced in the late 1990s using conventional longwall equipment to mine coal from blocks developed directly from an open-cut final highwall.

In 2009 economically recoverable black coal resources were reported to be 43.8 billion tonnes with over 96% of these resources in New South Wales and Queensland. Australia has about 7% of the world's economically recoverable black coal and ranks fifth behind USA (31%), Russia (22%), China (14%) and India (8%).

Processing

Black coal may be used without any processing other than crushing and screening to reduce the rock to a useable and consistent size. However, it is often washed to remove pieces of rock or mineral that may be present. This reduces ash and improves overall quality. Washing involves immersing the crushed coal in a liquid of high specific gravity in which coal floats and can be recovered while the heavier rock and minerals sink and are discarded.

Uses

The major use of black coal is for generating electricity in power stations, where it is pulverised and burnt to heat steam-generating boilers. Coal used for this process is called steaming coal. In 2008 77% of the electricity generated in Australia was produced by coal fired power stations (includes black and brown coals).

Some types of black coal are suitable for coke-making. These coals are called coking coal and when heated in the absence of air produce gases and coke. Coke is a porous solid composed mainly of carbon and ash. Good quality coke is hard, has a high crushing strength, and is mainly used in blast furnaces that produce iron. Many organic chemicals, including tars and feedstocks for making various plastics, can be prepared from the by-products of coke and gas production. Some coal is used primarily to obtain these products.

PCI coal is used in blast furnaces as a way of lowering operating costs and extending the life of coke ovens. Black coal is also used as a heat source in the manufacture of cement and food processing.

Brown Coal

Brown coal, sometimes called lignite, is a relatively soft material which has a heating value only about one-quarter of that for black coal. It has a much lower carbon content than black coal and a higher moisture content. Where found near the surface in thick seams, it can be mined economically on a large scale by open-cut methods.

Resources and Deposits

Australian brown coal deposits are Tertiary in age and range from about 15 million to about 50 million years old. The main deposits are in Victoria, the only State that produces brown coal. In the Latrobe Valley in Gippsland, thick seams, up to 165 m, form part of a sequence of brown coal measures that is the basis of Victoria's electric power industry. Smaller deposits occur in the Bacchus Marsh, Altona and Anglesea areas of Victoria, in the St Vincents and Murray Basins and around Pidinga in South Australia, in the Murray Basin in New South Wales and Victoria, at Waterpark Creek near Rockhampton in Queensland, and at Scaddan, O'Sullivans and Balladonia in the south east of Western Australia.

In 2009 Australia's economically recoverable brown coal resources were reported to be 37 billion tonnes, all of which is in Victoria and with over 90% in the La Trobe Valley. Australia has about 24% of the world's economic resources and is ranked first.

Mining

The La Trobe Valley mines of Yallourn, Hazelwood and Loy Yang extract brown coal from large open-cut mines utilising giant bucket-wheel excavators, or dredgers, which may weigh several thousand tonnes. The coal is loaded onto conveyor belts for delivery to power stations. However, in a recent development the dredgers at Yallourn have been replaced by four large dozers. At Anglesea, Alcoa of Australia Ltd operates an open-cut mine to provide brown coal for its power station. This power station provides most of the electricity for the company's aluminium smelter at Point Henry. The small Maddingley mine near Bacchus Marsh produces a horticultural product.

Annual brown coal production is about 68 million tonnes, all from Victoria and with over 98% from the La Trobe Valley. Australia produces about 7% of the world's brown coal and is ranked fifth largest after Germany (21%), Russia (10%), Turkey (9%) and USA (8%).

Uses

In Victoria, almost all of the brown coal extracted is burnt to heat steam-generating boilers in electrical power stations located near the coal mines. It is also made into briquettes, which are used for industrial and domestic heating in Australia and are also exported. Brown coal can also be used to produce water gas, which is used in the production of ammonia, solvents, and liquid fuels, and can be a source of industrial carbon, used to decolourise and purify solutions and (as char) in iron, glass, and cement manufacture.

Suggestions for Further Reading

  • Minerals Council of Australia - Australia's Coal Industry
  • Australian Coal Association Research Program
  • CSIRO - Australian Coal
  • World Coal Institute
  • Australia's Identified Mineral Resources, Geoscience Australia, Canberra.
  • Ellis, M.H. 1969 A saga of coal, Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
  • Hargraves, A.J. (Ed) 1993 History of Coal Mining in Australia, The Con Martin Memorial Volume. Monograph 21. The Australasian Institute of Mining & Metallurgy, Melbourne.
  • Huleatt, M.B. 1991 Handbook of Australian black coals: Geology, resources, seam properties and product specification, Resources Report 7. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra.
  • Traves, D.M. and King, D. 1975 Coal, in Knight, C. (Ed),Economic Geology of Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne.
  • Woodcock, J.T. and Hamilton, J.K. (eds) 1993 The Sir Maurice Mawby Memorial Volume, Volume 2. The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne.
  • Woodcock, J.T. (ed) 1984 Victoria's brown coal - A huges fortune in chancery, The Sir Willis Conolly Memorial Volume, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne.
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