Politics of mining in africa

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The fourth event of the Joint Speaker Series with Freie Universität Berlin will discuss the mobilization of local communities and associated social movements, the. Political and administrative leaders in host countries Executives and corporate managers of transnational corporations. The politics of large-scale mining in Africa: domestic policy, donors, and global economic processes by F. Bourgouin* * Danish Institute for International Studies, Politics and Development Research Unit, Denmark. Sep 26, 2011 · Politics of Mining for Gold in West Africa. Politics of Mining for Gold in West Africa. Skip navigation Sign in. Search. Loading Close. Yeah, keep it.
Zambia’s politics of copper mining. Zambia is the largest copper producer in Africa and ranks as the seventh largest copper producer in the world. At the same time, this resource-rich nation continues to suffer from high poverty rates and unemployment — the World Bank estimates that around 60 percent of Zambians live below the national . Politics of mining in Africa. Category page. Edit. Classic editor History Talk (0) Subcategories. This category has only the following subcategory. B [+]. The fourth event of the Joint Speaker Series with Freie Universität Berlin will discuss the mobilization of local communities and associated social movements, the. Political and administrative leaders in host countries Executives and corporate managers of transnational corporations. The politics of large-scale mining in Africa: domestic policy, donors, and global economic processes by F. Bourgouin* * Danish Institute for International Studies, Politics and Development Research Unit, Denmark. Sep 26, 2011 · Politics of Mining for Gold in West Africa. Politics of Mining for Gold in West Africa. Skip navigation Sign in. Search. Loading Close. Yeah, keep it.
Mining has played a key role in the growth of many towns in South Africa. This growth has been accompanied by a proliferation of informal settlements, by pressure to provide basic services and by institutional pressures in local government to support mining. Fragile municipal finance, changing social attributes, the pressures of shift-work on mineworkers, the impact on the physical environment and perceived new inequalities between mineworkers, contract workers and original inhabitants have further complicated matters. Mining growth has however also led to substantial local economic benefits to existing business and it has contributed to a mushrooming of new enterprises. While the relationship between mining and economic development at the country level has received adequate attention in existing literature, less is known about the consequences of mining at the local level. This book investigates the local impacts of mining in South Africa, focusing on employment, inequality, housing, business development, worker well-being, governance, municipal finance, politics of mining in africa, planning and the environment. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, Mining and Community in South Africa will be of interest to scholars of South Africa, economic development, labour and industry, politics and planning. Category: Political Science
Author : Philippe Burger
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Examines the silicosis crisis in the South African mining industry, and reveals how the rate of, often fatal, tuberculosis among black migrant miners was hidden for over a century. Category: Health & Fitness
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A comprehensive view of health issues currently plaguing Africa, with an emphasis on the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Category: Literary Collections
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South Africa and the Global Hydrogen Economy is the publication of a MISTRA research project on the use of strategic minerals in the global putative hydrogen economy. The book highlights the global significance of platinum group metals (PGM) and explores the strategic opportunities that arise out of South Africa's politics of mining in africa of these strategic resources. From their extraction to their applications in fuel cells, what options are available for the country, the region and the world to better leverage this endowment towards supporting growth and development objectives? In view of their expanding range of applications, do PGM need the hydrogen economy? Conversely, does the hydrogen economy need PGM? Addressed to all industry stakeholders, including those in the public and private sectors, the options explored in this book are based on a thorough analysis of the global dynamics that should inform policy and business models related to PGM. mining bitcoin cash solo Category: Science
Author : Mapungubwe Institute for Strategic Reflection (MISTRA)
ISBN : 9781920655709
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Community engagement -- Corporate social responsibility (CSR) -- Mental health -- Mining community -- Sustainable development -- Geestesgesondheid -- Gemeenskapskakeling -- Korporatiewe sosiale verantwoordelikheid -- Myngemeenskap -- Volhoubare ontwikkeling. Category:
Author : Louis Johannes Van Wyk
ISBN : OCLC:456058626
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A fascinating read, this book will give readers an insight and a clearer understanding of the bases of what prompted the author to write this critique on South African mining and its true operational reflections, politics of mining in africa. As a mining employee for eight years, he has firsthand experience about what people are dealing with and shares his thoughts on how these issues can be resolved. Category: Business & Economics
Author : Abraham Mathebe
ISBN : 1453557628
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Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) are a relatively new development in South Africa, having emerged in the 1980s, and this groundbreaking book provides a comprehensive overview of these EAPs in South Africa. It gives readers a first-hand view of the myriad issues encountered by South African practitioners. Employee Assistance Programs in South Africa provides EAP professionals, human resources managers, social workers, psychologists, and other mental health professionals with startling insight into the significant clinical, politics of mining in africa, cultural, and ethical problems that their South African colleagues face in the workplace. It begins to fill the gap in the literature on professional practice in an apartheid society and can help develop opportunities for dialogue and an exchange of ideas between all EAP workers to help educate them and bring them together. This enlightening and potentially controversial book addresses a variety of pertinent topics, including: the conceptual sophistication of EAPs currently operating in the South African business community an evaluation of the macro model EAP in South Africa in light of the country’s sociopolitical, politics of mining in africa, economic, and social problems cultural concerns facing black and white EAP politics of mining in africa and clients ethical conflicts inherent in working in an environment sanctioned by apartheid widespread alcohol and drug problems in South Africa the development of a post-traumatic stress and accident involvement program current educational developments in the EAP field in South Africa Providing a thorough, clear understanding of South Africa’s EAPs, this is an ideal book for all professionals and advanced students interested in the effects of political, societal, and cultural values on the operations of EAPs in a foreign country. Category: Business & Economics
Author : R Paul Maiden
ISBN : 9781317940029
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Divided into geographic regions and representing every African nation, this comprehensive collection of case studies explores how successful business enterprises of varying size, along with community projects, help to create jobs in Africa. A valuable guide to conducting business anywhere on the continent, this account also offers information on finding business opportunities and handling oft-encountered problems. Category: Business & Economics
Author : David Fick
ISBN : 9781919855479
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"Legacy of the Mine is a visual narrative of untold stories, exploring the consequences of mining on South Africa's land and people. The objective was to reveal through the lens the forgotten communities that the mining industry has left behind. Godfrey's subjects become symbols of the struggle for environmental and social justice in the country. The legacy of mining is apparent in many ways - through land rendered unfit for alternative uses, public health crises, land land and water pollution, and the impact of historical labour exploitation on family structures. Unveiling these stories through investigative fieldwork across the country, Godfrey delves deeper into the effects of the mine on local communities. The Ernest Cole Photographic Award has been established to stimulate creative work in photography in southern Africa. Legacy of the Mine by Ilan Godfrey - with an introduction by Sakhela Buhlungu - is the second in a series of annual publications to be published under the auspices of this award." -- Publisher. Category: Mineral industries
Author : Ilan Godfrey
ISBN : 1431408611
Genre : Mineral industries
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Mining industry affected by escalating social, economic and political issues: Deloitte | MINING.com

Sep 26, 2011 · Politics of Mining for Gold in West Africa. Politics of Mining for Gold in West Africa. Skip navigation Sign in. Search. Loading Close. Yeah, keep it. Compre o livro Politics of Mining in Africa: Blood Diamonds, Cote D'Ivoire, Economy of Angola, Economy of Sierra Leone, Coltan, Angolan Civil War, Sierra Leone CIV na. A conceptual approach to evaluating the political economics of mining in Africa and economic planners in emerging African mining countries alone. The Mineral Revolution is a term used by historians to refer to the rapid industrialisation and economic changes which occurred in South Africa from the 1870s onwards. The Mineral Revolution was largely driven by the need to create a permanent workforce to work in the mining industry, and saw South Africa transformed from a patchwork of . This book investigates the local impacts of mining in South Africa, focusing on employment South Africa S Gold Mines And The Politics Of Silicosis. Author: Jock. Resource Insight is published by the Southern Africa Resource Watch. Southern Africa The Politics of Reforming Zambia’s Mining Tax Regime. Introduction.

Political and administrative leaders in host countries Executives and corporate managers of transnational corporations. The politics of large-scale mining in Africa: domestic policy, donors, and global economic processes by F. Bourgouin* * Danish Institute for International Studies, Politics and Development Research Unit, Denmark. Sep 26, 2011 · Politics of Mining for Gold in West Africa. Politics of Mining for Gold in West Africa. Skip navigation Sign in. Search. Loading Close. Yeah, keep it. This book investigates the local impacts of mining in South Africa, focusing on employment South Africa S Gold Mines And The Politics Of Silicosis. Author: Jock.


The Mineral Revolution is a term used by historians to refer to the rapid industrialisation and economic changes which occurred in South Africa from the 1870s onwards. The Mineral Revolution was largely driven by the need to create a permanent workforce to work in the mining industry, and saw South Africa transformed from a patchwork of agrarian states to a unified, industrial nation. In political terms, the Mineral Revolution had a significant impact on diplomacy and military affairs. Finally, the policies and events of the Mineral Revolution had an increasingly negative impact on race relations in South Africa, and formed the basis of the apartheid system, which dominated South African society for a century.

South Africa before the Mineral Revolution[edit]

By the mid-nineteenth century, South Africa was not a unified state, but was divided between provinces of the British Empire, states formed by Afrikaner settlers, and various native African states. The British provinces, Cape Colony and Natal, were both fairly prosperous colonies, with the majority of black and white settlers living in rural areas and employed in sharecropping or the production of cash crops. To the north, the two Afrikaner states of Orange Free State and Transvaal were less densely populated and in a state of constant economic rivalry with the wealthier British provinces. Surrounding the British and Afrikaner states were a number of native African polities such as Zululand. These states were independent of white control and their populations were largely involved in animal husbandry. Some, such as Pediland, acted as buffer states between the Afrikaner and British polities.

The overall population of the South Africa region was predominantly employed in agricultural occupations, either tending cattle, or as in the British colonies, cultivating cash crops such as sugar and coffee. Urban areas were small in number and size, and provided only a small contribution to the Afrikaner and British economies, mainly via the production of consumer goods and wine. Regional economies differed – while the Afrikaner and native African states were concerned with developing and maintaining self-sufficiency, the Cape Colony was more focused on Britain's colonial economy, fulfilling a role as a producer of raw agricultural produce and a few luxury goods such as wine, and as a consumer of manufactured goods from Britain.

Economy[edit]

Mining[edit]

The Mineral Revolution began with the discovery of diamonds at the town of Kimberley in 1867. The discovery of diamonds led to a rush of prospectors descending on the town, whose population skyrocketed as increasing numbers of prospectors arrived to seek their fortune. As more diggers arrived in Kimberley, diamond-mining increased in scale, focusing in open-pit mining of three main sites. As surface deposits of diamonds were excavated, deeper pits had to be dug, propelling the Mineral Revolution into a new phase.

To excavate deep deposits of diamonds, diggers needed machinery (particularly steam engines), credit, and a large labour force. These were unavailable to ordinary diggers, and the diamond mines were quickly taken over by the "mining capitalists" – large corporations with access to credit, machinery, and labour.

The discovery of gold at the Witwatersrand orefields in 1886 triggered a gold rush which greatly escalated this continuing trend. The orefields, which overlapped British and Afrikaner territory, were quickly excavated of all surface deposits and a similar pattern to Kimberley emerged – small diggers were bought out by large corporations. At Kimberley, the diamond mines fell under the monopoly of De Beers, while at the Rand orefields, land was bought up by Wernher, Breit & Eckstein, Consolidated Gold Mines Inc., and a number of smaller companies.

The emergence of industrial-scale mining forced major demographic shifts in South Africa's population. During the early stages of mining, labour had been primarily provided by young men from the African states, primarily Pedi men. The young men would travel to the mines during the summer to provide temporary labour and earn enough wages to buy status symbols, such as cattle or guns, before returning home. This system, though, was too unreliable to provide a permanent labour force and was not acceptable to the mining corporations. Young men arriving at the mines were often exhausted from their journey and had to be given two weeks' rest, at company expense, before they were fit to work in the mines. Workers who were not paid on time or did not like their living conditions (which were often very harsh due to bad food and disease) tended to drift away, and workers were at risk of being recalled to their own countries, as happened in 1876 when the chief of Pediland recalled all Pedi men at the mines to fight in a war against the Transvaal. The need to create a fixed, permanent labour force at Kimberley and on the Rand became the primary objective of the mining corporations and the colonial government.

The increasing scale of mining operations prompted the corporations to offer very low wages. Extracting diamonds from rocks, and processing the low-quality gold ore at the Rand, was very labour-intensive and required armies of workers. To offset the cost of employing so many workers, and to compensate for the high salaries offered to machine supervisors and administrators, the companies offered very low wages to ordinary labourers, resulting in falling living standards in urban areas.

Urbanisation[edit]

The need to create a fixed labour force resulted in the colonial government, and the mining corporations, introducing a variety of schemes to keep workers on-site for lengthy periods of time. Corporate agents travelled to African states, offering fixed contracts and prearranged wages to attract young African men to the mines.

At the mine sites, corporations introduced various schemes to keep workers on-site. This was partially motivated in Kimberley by the corporation's fear that workers were stealing diamonds and selling them on the black market. To counteract this assumed threat, De Beers introduced strip searching, whereby workers leaving the mines at the end of a shift would be undressed and searched for diamonds. A more extreme measure was taken in the early 1880s by De Beers, when the company introduced corporate compounds. These enclosed compounds were built in the style of open-air prisons, where workers were required to live by the terms of their contract, in exchange for food, accommodation, and cheap beer provided by the company. In reality, workers had to pay for things out of their paltry wages, while the compounds themselves were notorious for disease, malnutrition, and death. In 1886 white workers at the De Beers compound in Kimberley elected a local member of parliament who successfully campaigned for white employees to live in the town, but black workers, who had no vote, were forced to remain on the compounds.

Agriculture[edit]

The growth of towns and cities across South Africa prompted changes in rural areas, as farms lost labourers to the mines and demand for food and agricultural produce increased. By the 1870s, "agrarian capitalism" had emerged, with large commercial farms buying up smallholdings and producing commercial goods for sale in the towns. This resulted in tens of thousands of black and white farmers losing their jobs, and being forced to work as wage-labourers on commercial farms or migrate to the cities in search of work. These changes greatly increased South Africa's agricultural output as commercial farms were more efficient and had greater access to farming machinery than small farms, and saw social changes in rural areas. The peasantry effectively disappeared, and a new class, the "rural gentry", emerged. These middle-class farmers, midway between the large commercial farms and smallholdings, were able to significantly increase their earnings by producing cash crops such as coffee, tobacco, sugar, and grapes, which were not labour-intensive and which fetched high prices at urban markets. Animal husbandry also increased, with increasingly large swathes of land being turned over to sheep and cattle farming.

Infrastructure[edit]

Mass migration to towns, urban growth, and the increasing urban demand for rural produce prompted the development of South Africa's transport and communications infrastructure. Railways were greatly expanded to link towns to each other and to the countryside, and ports such as Durban and Cape Town were expanded to cope with increasing immigration and commercial activity, greatly stimulated development in South Africa.

Politics[edit]

The Mineral Revolution had a major impact on political developments in South Africa. Cape Colony required armies of workers for the mines and support industries, and to secure a regular flow of workers to the mines, the colonial government began a series of annexations of neighbouring African states, such as Basutoland, Bechuanaland, and Pediland. In the newly annexed territories, the colonial government introduced laws such as the Hut tax, which demanded that inhabitants pay an annual tax on their dwellings, paid in British cash. As the only way to earn British currency was via employment in the mines, this created a steady flow of workers as young men travelled to the mines to earn money, which they sent back to their families to pay the tax.

The 1879 Anglo-Zulu War also had roots in the Mineral Revolution, specifically as Cape Colony wished to neutralise any potential threats to the mines. In the aftermath of the war, thousands of young Zulu men migrated to the mines in search of work, driving down wages and exacerbating the already cramped conditions in the compounds.

The 1899–1902 Second Anglo-Boer War can be traced to the Mineral Revolution. Britain's desire to control the entire Rand region (which overlapped neighbouring Transvaal), remove potential threats to the mines, and encourage industrial expansion by replacing the slow and inexperienced Afrikanerbureaucracy with British laws and regulations led to increasing tension between the British colonies and the Afrikaner states, resulting in the outbreak of war in 1899. The Second Anglo-Boer War united South Africa as a single state (initially British, but granted independence in 1910) and marked the beginning of the British Empire's decline.

Environmental Impact[edit]

Mining operations at the Rand and at Kimberley caused severe environmental damage. Open-pit mining was not only dangerous for the workers, but created deep pits which grew wider during rainfall. Urban growth placed increasing strains on water supplies and led to increasing pollution of rivers. In rural areas, commercial farming led to a steady degradation in soil quality, while increasing animal husbandry led to severe soil erosion in many places, as cattle drank scarce water supplies and pulled up the grass holding the soil together. Mechanised farming and over-grazing led by 1910 to the appearance of immense dongas in the countryside, which carried away soil and scarred the landscape, and contributed to dustbowls across South Africa in the early decades of the twentieth century.

References[edit]

  • The Making of Modern South Africa, Neil Worden
  • Capitalism and Labour on the Kimbrly Takudzwa and me
  • The Afrikaners, Herman Giliomee
  • Economy and society in pre-industrial South Africa, S Marks & A Atmore
  • Industrialisation and social change in South Africa, S Marks & R Rathbone
The farm near Johannesburg where gold was first discovered in 1886
The Witwatersrand is located in the former Boer republic of the Transvaal (South African Republic)
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