Myles kennedy mining

By | 02.01.2018
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Businessman Miles Kennedy, chairman of Resources and Investment NL, Medical Corporation Australaisa and CEO of Lonrho Mining Ltd, at his Subiaco office in Perth. The parents were listed as Wilfred Kennedy, b. 1863, Ulverston, In the 1840's he started mining at Askam in the hope of Myles Kennedy married Margaret. Jan 26, 2018 · The Acoustic Mining Company CONCERT, Myles Kennedy & Mark Tremonti - Rise Today (Live Acoustic) - Duration: 4:19. The Rock Vault 203 views. 4:19.
Everyone in the Australian mining industry knows Miles Kennedy. One of the few remaining characters in what has become a less colourful industry, the 66-year-old. The iron moor: a history of the company miners mining company Moor Field Mouzell Myles Kennedy Newland No.2 Level No.2 Pit North Lonsdale North Lonsdale iron. Businessman Miles Kennedy, chairman of Resources and Investment NL, Medical Corporation Australaisa and CEO of Lonrho Mining Ltd, at his Subiaco office in Perth. The parents were listed as Wilfred Kennedy, b. 1863, Ulverston, In the 1840's he started mining at Askam in the hope of Myles Kennedy married Margaret. Jan 26, 2018 · The Acoustic Mining Company CONCERT, Myles Kennedy & Mark Tremonti - Rise Today (Live Acoustic) - Duration: 4:19. The Rock Vault 203 views. 4:19.
Under construction   Wilfred Burton Rowley Kennedy Norwegian
version

In the mid 1880'ies a young Englishman by the name of Wilfred Burton Rowley Kennedy arrived at small community by the Sognefjord in Norway. At this location, called Sogndal, he entered as a guest at the hotel "Danielsen". He soon got a reputation of being a clever hunter and angler. Most commonly known is the fact that he on the 25th September 1886 signed a contract with one Jens Undahl to rent an old match factory in the valley for 15 years, he should not make matches and all existing machinery should be removed. At several occasions earlier this factory had burnt down. The fire at 3 October 1884 was very serious, no further production was possible. Up to 110 women and men had their daily work there, in addition there were much unemployment in the valley. Wilfred was offered to purchase the factory for a sum of kr 20,000. It was bought by him at the 13th May 1887, already he had made it into a textile factory with 13 loomes. The parish was now welcomed with new industry giving employment to a number of persons and a marked for the local production of wool from a number of small farms along the fjord. But already the next year he sold the factory to the local sheriff Nils Lem. Also at this time he bought an old estate "Bahus" for an amount of kr 12,000 and gave it the new name "Ulverston".


              Ulverston at the time of Kennedy. The textile factory is seen with a high chimney behind the waterfall at left.

It was probably Kennedy who installed a large open stove of the finest British make in the large drawing-room. My Grandfather arrived as a new resident in the autumn of 1922. When he decorated this room and removed old wallpaper several small bullet holes could be seen in the timbered wall to the east. It appeared that Wilfred had been exercising pistol shooting with his friends as the tradition told. At Årøy (Aareoy), an area at the end of the Sogndal fjord, a well known salmon and trout river with several water falls can be found. Wilfred was famous for catching in 1894 a salmon of 63 lbs, one of the largest to be seen in this part of Norway. In previous times a cabin to host visiting anglers was located by the river.
It is told that Wilfred had a cabin of his own there and that he prepared parties for his servants which included two maids as well as two hired men.


The Årøy River with the "English House"
 
Fishing in Årøy River (old post card)

On the front wall of the anglers's cabin drawings of the largest catches were made. The cabin is long gone. But a photo of this wall exist on which we can see Wilfred's salmon. A nearby mansion ("The English House") where the visiting anglers stayed has also been demolished and burned (1966).


Drawing of Kennedy's salmon on the wall of an old cabin by the Årøy River.

According to church records Wilfred died on the 18th August 1894. A doctor was called and the cause of death recorded as heart failure. He was buried on the 25th August at the Stedje church yard only 31 years of age. His occupation was recorded as "Landlord" and "Gentleman" and his place of birth Ulverston, England. Old tradition tells that he hang himself in a certain room at the attic of his house.


Wilfred Kennedy's grave. (KLG, 2001)
Has been removed.
 
His tombstone in front of Stedje Church. (KLG, 2001)

Who was this English Gentleman?
In the census of 1 January 1891 he is listed as the main person and "Gentleman" at Ulverston. The person doing the census has also written down his occupation as "rentier". It is listed that he was married to Emielie Augusta Kennedy, born 1868 in Bremen (
probably Germany).

 
Wilfred's clock in Norway
given to one of his housekeepers.
Photo: Atle Bondvik, 2006

In the list of dwellers in the house we also find Sigri Pedersdaughter, "Servant, Kitchen maid", born 1844, locally, as well as Andria Rosendahl, "Housekeeper", born 1848, Kvalvaag, Salten, North Norway.

Wilfred and his wife got one child, Myles Cassilis, who was born in Bergen 10 September 1893. Tuesday on the 19th October 1893 he was christened in Stedje church in Sogndal. The parents were listed as Wilfred Kennedy, b. 1863, Ulverston, England, and Emilie Augusta Stengler, b. 1868, Bremen. (In a Kennedy genealogy Report she is listed as: "Emilie Augusta Glauert myles kennedy mining dau. of Roland Glauert Bergen, of Norway").
The Godparents were listed to be no less than: "Sheriff Lem, Landowner (Squire) Nils Knagenhjelm and his wife Mrs Augusta Knagenhjelm, myles kennedy mining, Mrs Magda Knagenhjelm, Myles Kennedy"
(Myles probably not present since at bottom of list).
Sheriff
Nils LandmarkLem and Nils Knagenhjelm were active leaders of the local bank and did much good for the community, myles kennedy mining. It was of course also important with new mining service providers investors. A Great-Grandchild of Lem tells me that his grandfather told him of his father's friendship with Kennedy.


Wilfred Burton Rowley Kennedy
 
Emielie Augusta Kennedy

Local tradition tells that Wilfred had been in Africa, probably because he suffered from asthma. He married a lady who had been a circus dancer or something of the sort. His family did not approve and it was believed that he might have been an outcast expelled myles kennedy mining Norway. Having got a son he decided to stop taking morphine. Probably it was administered so hasty that he was taken ill and died. His family arrived and the widow was offered to stay with them if they could take care of the upbringing of the boy. The housekeeper, Marta Vangestad, travelled with them back to England. After a while she returned as she did not feel comfortable in a large foreign house. Soon after WW1 his son, now an officer, visited his fathers grave in Sogndal.

Wilfred did not prosper by his stay in Norway, and probably did not lead a healthy life, being addicted to morphine. His son Myles Cassilis got a good education, at Malvern, and the Royal Military College, and was a Captain of the Late 13th Husar. On 15 Nov 1917 he married Beryl Maud, 3rd, myles kennedy mining. daughter of R. H. Gosling, of Hawthorn Hill, Berks. and got two daughters. In 1931 he married Mollie Mildred Pady, in this marriage he also got type of mining daughters. Myles Cassilis died 3 Jan 1947.
Wilfred had an older brother by the name of Myles, a Great-Great-Grandchild of him living in Ulverston has provided information about Wilfred's family.


The myles kennedy mining factory burned down in 1898 and was rebuild with larger premises at the same location by the waterfall at a place called Foss. In my time it was a comparatively large factory with up to about 60 workers. After the death of Kennedy "Ulverston" got back the old name "Bahus". Now it was bought by Dr. Ole Benjamin Schøyen from Vinger in Norway for kr 6,000. He had a great interest in gardening and made a magnificent garden.


        Bahus in 1915 after Wilfred had left (uknown photographer). Demolished in 1962 to make room for a modern hotel.

After Dr. Schøyen had died in 1921 the place was bought by the municipality for kr 60,000 to be used myles kennedy mining a resident for doctors, myles kennedy mining. My Grandfather moved in on his 50th birthday in 1922, myles kennedy mining. In December 1961, at an age of 89 år, he moved myles kennedy mining the Oslo area. The house and the garden was now levelled with the ground to make room for a new hotel. The magnificent garden is gone, only few of the beautiful trees remain.

Some info on Wilfred's family background

Wilfred Burton Rowley Kennedy was one of fifteen children of Myles Kennedy software mining dogecoin Margaret Rowley, in Ulverston, Cumbria, myles kennedy mining. Myles was the owner of several iron mines in the area and lived in a large stone mansion and a tower with a panoramic view of Morecambe Bay and the Lake Mountains. The building was called "Stone Cross" from an ancient stone cross which power mining guide near the site. Wilfred was born on the 8th Myles kennedy mining 1863 and was educated at Cheltenham and Trinity College, Cambridge. He served as a lieutenant with a local myles kennedy mining Regiment, the 4th Battalion, Royal Lancaster Regiment.

The Lonsdale House in Ulverston was the home of a Myles Burton, whose daughter Elizabeth was born there in 1800. In 1817 he buildt a house Fair Example data mining near the centre of Ulverston. In 1819, Edward Kennedy came to Britain from New York and his son Charles fell in love with Elizabeth Burton. The couple wanted to marry, but she was under age and her father refused to give consent.
Deciding to elope, it was told, they set off in a coach, but Myles Burton returned home and found his daughter missing and set off in pursuit in such a hurry, the story goes, that the coachman had not enough time to get properly dressed. But myles kennedy mining eloping couple met with one misfortune after another, first one of the horses lost a shoe and then the wheel came off the carriage, that they only got as far as Newby Bridge, when a somewhat angry father caught up with them.
Elizabeth was brought back to Fair View and for a year and a day, myles kennedy mining, was constantly accompanied round Ulverston by a maid, to make certain that she did not attempt to elope again.
In the end Myles Burton resented and allowed Charles and Elizabeth to marry. Charles set up as a doctor in Broughton, but in 1821, when Myles Burton died, Elizabeth inherited the house and property and the couple moved to Fair View. In 1835 they got a son called Myles Kennedy.
Charles's father Edward had a brother who had attended Cambridge to read geology. In the 1840's he started mining at Askam in the hope of finding silver, but instead he found iron ore. The Kennedys took out a lease on the land from a Col. Mckinnen of the Lotts, Askam, for two years, but when the period expired he would not grant an extension.
Fortunately, though, for the Kennedys, the iron ore field ran into the adjoining property, although the owner was unaware at the time that iron ore existed on his land. The story goes, that at that time, Squire Sandys had a town house in Daltongate, the house that is now the Bible Shop. One day he met a member of the Kennedy family in Daltongate and told him that he had just bought some property at Roanhead, as a place to keep his greyhounds who zcash nvidia mining making too much noise, and offered the lease on the adjoining land, where the iron ore had been found by the Kennedys. "From that time neither the Kennedys or the Sandys looked back", it is told.
Tremendous wealth came out of the iron ore mines between 1851 and 1923, but their hey day was during the Franco-Prussian war from 1870 to 1873. The mines were named after members of the family:
Nigel, Kathleen, myles kennedy mining, Violet, etc.
Although Fair View in recent years was the established home of the Kennedys, originally their house were at Myles kennedy mining Foot and Stone Cross. It was Myles who built Myles kennedy mining Cross after making an unsuccessful bid for Conishead Priory. Col. Bradyll wanted £35,000, but Myles would offer no more than £30,000. Both were stubborn men and neither would give in. In the end Myles decided to build Stone Cross and had spent more than £35,000 before the first floor was completed. The main building, built of white limestone with Hexam freestone dressing, was established in 1874. Myles kennedy mining final bill, when it was presented in 1880, was a colossal  £44,872 - 2s. - 2d.
(Ref.: Newspaper "THE NEWS" interview with Col. Hugh Kennedy, Fair View, April 18, 1966)

Myles Kennedy married Margaret Rowley (born 1834) on the 24th October 1860. Among the 15 children (6 sons and 9 daughters) the two oldest were:  Myles T. Burton (born 1862) and Wilfred Burton Rowley (born 1863).

 

Mr. and Mrs.Myles Kennedy
   
The Kennedy coat
of arms
 
           Wilfred's home - Stone Cross in Ulverston
Pictures of the old mansion

A Gothic-style white limestone mansion buildt for the Kennedy family in 1874. Designed by J. W. Grundy.

Main hall with
magnificent oak staircase which was removed and burnt.
 
The dining room

                                                                        More photographs of Stone Cross Manor
                                                These photos belong to Brian Ainley, former owner of Marl International. Correspondence by Mike Hancox.

  
    

The Kennedy family was living at Stone Cross to about 1950. The mansions more recently use has been as a special school owned by Lancashire County Council, myles kennedy mining. In the main hall a beautiful oak staircase was demolished in order to facilitate the playing of indoor football. In the early 1980's the mansion and the estate had been acquired by a group of London businessmen. They wanted to make a 50 room "first class" hotel. In recent years (1986 - 2002) Stone Cross Mansion was the head office of local company Marl International. Marl spent hundreds of thousands of pounds on the building, slowly restoring it and also bringing historic items back to the house.
In 2004 the building was put to fire and decimated by vandals.
At the present moment there is a big dispute about its ownership and also if when sold what Its Future Use Will Be.

 

Information from Carol Bennett at the "Ulverston Heritage Centre"

More of the Kennedy clan: http://www.kennedysociety.org/clan_info.htm

Thanks to Ken Barltrop, Clive Park, Myles Kennedy, Mike Hancox, and others, for information

New Web Page about the Stone Cross School and its Old Boys.

Ulverston, a town in Cumbria south of "Lake district".


Information can be found at:http://www.liv.ac.uk/~mhbarker/ulverston.html

Back to main page

Any comments? Please reply to: kgroenha(at)online.no   (Substitute (at) with @ )

 

 

 

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Category:Defunct mining companies of the United Kingdom - WikiVisually

Jan 26, 2018 · The Acoustic Mining Company CONCERT, Myles Kennedy & Mark Tremonti - Rise Today (Live Acoustic) - Duration: 4:19. The Rock Vault 203 views. 4:19. Jan 25, 2018 · Slash & Myles Kennedy - Sweet Child Of Mine Live [HD] CAE Terra Mining Simulator - Duration: 2:39. CAEvideogallery 3,150 views. 2:39. Sandscale Haws is a national nature reserve on the Duddon Estuary, Cumbria, England. Myles Kennedy leased the mining rights from Thomas Sandys in 1852. Myles Kennedy leased the mining rights from Thomas Sandys in 1852. There may have been an earlier takenote but there is no sign of mining on . Myles B Kennedy's grandfather was Charles Storr Kennedy who, with Henry Kennedy of Brighton held 4 X 1/18th shares in the Ulverston Mining Company when it was established in 1838. CS Kennedy's shares were sold to Alexander Brogden before 1857. Everyone in the Australian mining industry knows Miles Kennedy. One of the few remaining characters in what has become a less colourful industry, the 66-year-old.

Jan 25, 2018 · Slash & Myles Kennedy - Sweet Child Of Mine Live [HD] CAE Terra Mining Simulator - Duration: 2:39. CAEvideogallery 3,150 views. 2:39. Sandscale Haws is a national nature reserve on the Duddon Estuary, Cumbria, England. Myles Kennedy leased the mining rights from Thomas Sandys in 1852. This site hosts the Durham Mining Museum website.


1. Astley and Tyldesley Collieries – The company became part of Manchester Collieries in 1929 and some of its collieries were nationalised in 1947. The Coal Measures lie above a bed of Millstone Grit and are interspersed with sandstones, mudstones, shales, the most productive seams are in the lower two thirds of the Middle Coal Measures where coal is mined from seams between the Worsley Four Foot and Arley mines. The Coal Measures generally dip towards the south and west, numerous small faults affect the coalfield. In the 1840s, John Darlington leased the rights of land belonging to Astley Hall and sank a pit, Astley Colliery. It was near other old shafts on Meanleys Farm, Coal had been mined in Astley before this date, on an old enclosure map North Lane was titled the Coal Road and later was known as North Coal Pit Lane. In 1847 Darlingtons company was known as Astley and Bedford Collieries, Gin Pits name suggests it, or its predecessor, had horse driven winding gear and was on the site of even older coal workings. E. Milner around the same time, Jacksons lease was for coal from the Worsley Four Foot mine and he was required to sink two shafts 14 feet in diameter with no workings under Astley Hall. By the time the Astley Hall estate was sold in 1889, Astley and Tyldesley Collieries had paid a total of £90,526 for these mines, the deeper mines, the Seven Feet and the Trencherbone, were not included in the 1857 lease. These coal seams produced coal, household coal and coal for Tyldesleys gasworks. About 500 tons of coal per day was raised from the older pits, the Bedford Colliery closed in 1864 and the company concentrated its operations closer to Gin Pit. Jacksons Astley and Tyldesley Coal and Salt Company sank two shafts at St Georges Colliery, commonly known as Back o t Church, to the south of Tyldesley Station, in 1866, Nook Colliery No 1 Pit, south of Darlingtons original Gin Pit was sunk. The company also sank a pit at Cross Hillock south of the Leigh to Manchester road in near Higher Green Lane, the deep collieries replaced the older pits in the area. A new shaft was sunk at Gin Pit in 1872 and a second shaft a year later at Nook Pit, St Georges No 3 pit was sunk in 1883 and by 1899 Nook No 3 was in operation. Lengthy litigation followed resulting in a £3,000 fine for Greens company, the company was a major employer in the area. In 1896 Nook Pit employed 480 men below ground and 125 workers on the surface, household and manufacturing coal was produced from the Binn and Crumbouke mines. Gin Pit was smaller employing 240 underground workers and 55 on the surface, gas coal, household and steam coal was mined from the Crumbouke and Six Foot mines. The surface workers included women who sorted coal on the screens at the pit brow, in 1900 the company became the Astley and Tyldesley Collieries Company, and in 1914 Nook No 4 Pit was sunk. Nook became the largest colliery on the Manchester Coalfield, Jacksons Sidings were built by the LNWR and extended to Gin and Nook Pits and, on the early tramroad, a locomotive replaced the horses

2. Bedford Colliery – Bedford Colliery, also known as Wood End Pit, was a coal mine on the Manchester Coalfield in Bedford, Leigh, Lancashire, England. Speakmans father owned Priestners, Bankfield, and Broadoak collieries in Westleigh, Bedford Colliery remained in the possession of the Speakman family until it was amalgamated with Manchester Collieries in 1929. Bedford Colliery exploited the Middle Coal Measures which were laid down in the Carboniferous period, the seams generally dip towards the south and west and are affected by small faults. The Upper Coal Measures are not worked in part of the coalfield. Bedford was a community until the arrival of the Bridgewater Canal. Coal however had been got from small pits in the northeast of the township, Wood End Farm was an area of Bedford with many old small coal pits including Milners Pit which was working in 1853. John Speakman began sinking two shafts south of the line in 1874, and by 1876 coal was being produced. The shafts were 197 yards deep and reached the Crombouke mine, in 1883 No.2 shaft was deepened to 420 yards to access the Seven Foot mine and to 627 yards to access the Trencherbone mine. Three years later No.1 shaft was deepened to reach the Arley mine, Speakmans Sidings between Tyldesley Station and Bedford Leigh Station were provided after 1882. Speakmans built a private railway line about a half mile in length to Guest Street. The line served a brickyard and smokeless fuel plant, in 1896 Bedford Colliery employed 366 men underground and 108 surface workers. Household and manufacturing coal was got from the Crumbouke, Six, Speakmans sank No.3 pit between 1913 and 1916. After 1929 the colliery became part of Manchester Collieries and its railway was connected to the Astley and Tyldesley Collieries railway system between Nook and Gin Pit collieries, Manchester Collieries made improvements including new headgear and screens. The colliery became part of the National Coal Board in 1947 and it closed in 1967 having employed 518 underground and 131 surface workers. The Bedford Colliery Disaster occurred on Friday 13 August 1886, when an explosion of firedamp killed 38 men, there is a memorial in Leigh Cemetery. The Speakmans bought a 0-6-0 saddle tank locomotive about which little is known and this engine was replaced by a 4-coupled saddletank The Sirdar from the Vulcan Foundry at Newton le Willows. In 1910 the company acquired Bedford a 0-6-0 side tank built in 1865 by Manning Wardle of Leeds, notes Footnotes Bibliography Photographs of Wood End Pit Past Forward Issue 43 pp. 13–15 BBC, Early Days as a Bevin Boy in Lancashire Bedford Colliery, Leigh by Roger Hampson

3. Bridgewater Collieries – After the Dukes death in 1803 his estate was managed by the Bridgewater Trustees until the 3rd Earl of Ellesmere inherited the estates in 1903. Bridgewater Collieries was formed in 1921 by the 4th Earl, the company merged with other prominent mining companies to form Manchester Collieries in 1929. Small scale coal mining had been carried on since the Middle Ages where coal seams outcropped in Worsley, john Edgerton, the first Duke of Bridgewater, bought the Worsley estate in 1630. The problem was solved by driving an underground level intersecting the coal seams northwards towards Walkden from the Bridgewater Canal into the face of an old quarry at the Delph. This level served two purposes, it drained the coal workings and provided a means of transporting coal out of the mines, the Worsley Navigable Levels developed into an extensive system of underground canals branching from the original level. The mine workings were accessed by several shafts sunk along the main drainage level providing access for colliers. These included Wood Pit, Ingles Pit and Kempnough Pit in Worsley and Edge Fold Pits, the underground levels were driven as far as Farnworth, Linnyshaw, and westwards towards Chaddock Pit in Tyldesley. He also bought the Garrett Hall estate in Tyldesley in 1829, the Duke had sunk the Queen Anne and Chaddock Pits in the 18th century and by about 1820 they were linked to the Bridgewater Canal at Boothstown Basin by an underground level. In 1838 Chaddock Pit was the biggest colliery in Tyldesley and was working in 1848. By 1830 over 300 shallow pits had been sunk including some at Wardley near the Preston to Manchester road, abbots Fold pit worked the Worsley Four Foot mine and was linked by an underground level to Ingles pit at Worsley and possibly had a tramway to the canal. To the north Mathers Field pit worked the Bin mine and coal was wound by a steam engine. In the 1830 the Burgess Land pit was sunk to the Bin mine north of Ellenbrook, it employed 35 men, shude Hill pit had a steam winding engine. The City and Gatley pits at New Manchester north of Mosley Common were sunk in the 1840s and linked to the navigable levels and these pits worked the Brassey mine at 262 feet and the Rams mine at 360 feet and employed 64 workers in 1852. An explosion of firedamp in 1838 and a fall in 1843 caused two deaths. The Bridgewater Trustees began sinking deep shafts closer to the Ellenbrook in 1862, during the 1860s deep pits were sunk at Sandhole and Linnyshaw Colliery

4. British Coal – The British Coal Corporation was a nationalised corporation responsible for the mining of coal in the United Kingdom. It existed from the 1946 Labour Government 1945-1951s Coal Industry Nationalisation Act establishing the National Coal Board, British Coal was formed on 12 July 1946 as the National Coal Board, which was responsible for the organisation and running of coal extraction. It was under the responsibility of the Minister of Fuel & Power, the NCB formed two holding companies in 1973, to handle non core activities, NCB Limited and NCB Limited. In 1987, the NCB became the British Coal Corporation, the English mining operations were merged with RJB Mining to form UK Coal plc. This formed a monopoly that was exempted from EU competition laws, the British Coal Corporation officially ceased on 26 January 1997. The business was succeeded by the Coal Authority, Coal in the United Kingdom History of coal mining in Great Britain Ashworth, William, and Mark Pegg. History of the British Coal Industry, Volume 5, 1946-1982, The Nationalized Industry Brady, plans and Achievements of the Labour Government. Pp 77–131 Catalogue of the British Coal operational research archives — at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick

5. Cory Brothers – Sir Clifford John Cory, 1st Baronet was a Welsh colliery owner, coal exporter and Liberal Party politician. Clifford John Cory was the son of John Cory, a South Wales coal broker and he was educated privately in Wales and on the continent. On 25 January 1893 he married Jane Ann Gordon Lethbridge, the daughter of an officer from Somerset. They only lived together for three months and Lady Cory later applied for a judicial separation, in 1886, Cory was appointed lieutenant in the 3rd Battalion, the Welsh Regiment but his principal career was the coal trade following the example of his father and his uncle Richard Cory. Frank Owen described him as one of the rising young coal kings of South Wales whose market was indeed the world wanted to be freed of the trammels on trade. At the time of his death in 1941, he was chairman of Cory Brothers Ltd. colliery proprietors, at one time he had been chairman of the Monmouthshire and South Wales Coal Owners Association and of the Welsh Coal Trade Conciliation Board. Nevertheless, in the 1890s the coal-owners were still at the top of the hierarchy in South Wales even if politically they were less inclined to involvement. Cory was something of an exception however and he was sometime President of Cardiff Liberals. Cory was elected to Glamorgan County Council in 1892 as member for Ystrad and he ousted the sitting member, David Thomas, the only working man who served on the previous council. Cory retained the seat until 1910, the substantial coal owner to keep a prominent political profile in the Rhondda during this period. Cory was also High Sheriff of Monmouthshire for 1905 and he also served as a Justice of the Peace for Glamorgan and Monmouthshire and was a Deputy Lieutenant of the County of Glamorgan. He was created a baronet in 1907, the Cory baronetcy of Llantarnam Abbey, Cory had the abbey the Reginald Blewitt who had restored it in 1836. Cory was adopted as candidate for the Tory seat of South Monmouthshire in 1893 which he unsuccessfully contested at the 1895 general election. In 1900 he declined an offer to be considered as Liberal candidate for the Cornish constituency of St. Ives but by 1902 he had changed his mind, Cory gained St Ives from the Liberal Unionists at the Liberal landslide victory of 1906. He held the seat as a Liberal in the elections of January and this was in the face of a strong Tory resurgence in English agricultural seats in January 1910, the effect of which was not as marked in Cornwall. The issue of education was likely to have been a factor in Cory’s initial victory in 1906 too, more nonconformist MPs were elected to Parliament in 1906 than Conservatives MPs. In 1918 Cory stood and won in support of the Coalition government of David Lloyd George and he had presumably been sent the Coalition Coupon as he was without Conservative opposition and he was challenged by a Labour candidate who got 38% of the poll. At the 1922 general election Cory stood as a National Liberal as a supporter of Lloyd George, Labour did not stand a candidate but this did not help Cory, who lost to the Unionist candidate Anthony Hawke, the Recorder of Plymouth

6. English China Clays – English China Clays PLC, or ECC, was a mining company involved in the extraction of china clay, based in St Austell, Cornwall. It was once a constituent of the FTSE100 Index but in 1999 was acquired by Imetal, English China Clays was incorporated in April 1919 through the amalgamation of three of the largest producers, Martin Bros. West of England China Clay & Stone and the North Cornwall China Clay Company, the three companies accounted for around half the industrys output at the time. Before the First World War there had been as many as seventy individual china clay producers but the industry had suffered from overcapacity, months after the ECC merger, H. D. Pochin acquired J. W. Higman taking it to place in the industry after ECC. Even then it was estimated that the demand for clay was not much more that half of the industrys capacity, between 1929 and 1931 the industry’s output fell by a third, and ECC was losing money. The solution was a merger of the three leading producers, English China Clays became a holding company and its assets were transferred to a new operating company, English Clays Lovering Pochin, ECC held 63 per cent of the new joint company. In the few years followed, many of the smaller clay companies were acquired. In 1951 ECC acquired Lovering’s shares in the company followed in 1954 by the purchase of the remaining Pochin minority. With ECC now having full ownership of the company, the management structure was overhauled and four operating divisions created – china clay, building, quarrying. The Hudson history extends only to 1969, by then, the china clay division had benefitted from the growing market for china clay, both home and abroad, helped by the increased demand for coated paper. The cumbersome pit structure had been modernised and investment made in new plant, by the end of the 1960s ECC was producing around 2. 5m tons of china clay a year. ECC had also expanded into the ball clay market and, with over 250,000 tons a year, the building division comprised the firm of Selleck Nicholls Williams which had been acquired by ECC in 1945. It was noted for its Cornish Unit house, made from concrete which used spoil from the clay pits, after the 1960s, ECC began to regard private estate development as a suitable investment for surplus cash generated by the clay operation. The division was expanded in 1984 by the acquisition of the Swindon-based firm of Edwin H Bradley. A family firm founded in 1902, Bradley brought with it the well-known Bradstone building blocks and Bradley Estates with its extensive land holdings. ECC was now building over 1000 private houses a year and in 1986 made a contested, nevertheless, housing sales reached almost 1300 in 1989 and its trading margins were the highest of any large housebuilder. A change in management in the early 1990s led to the decision to focus ECC more closely on its original china clay business, housing volumes were allowed to decline and the rump of the land was sold in 1994 and 1995

7. Fletcher, Burrows and Company – Fletcher, Burrows and Company was a coal mining company that owned collieries and cotton mills in Atherton, Greater Manchester, England. Gibfield, Howe Bridge and Chanters collieries exploited the mines of the middle coal measures in the Manchester Coalfield. The Fletchers built company housing at Hindsford and a village at Howe Bridge which included pit head baths. The company became part of Manchester Collieries in 1929, the collieries were nationalised in 1947 becoming part of the National Coal Board. In 1776 Robert Vernon Atherton of Atherton Hall leased the Atherton coal rights to Thomas Guest from Bedford and John Fletcher of Tonge with Haulgh, the Fletchers had mining interests in Bolton and Clifton in the Irwell Valley from Elizabethan times. Matthew Fletchers family owned most of Clifton in 1750 including the Ladyshore, during the early 19th century the Fletchers worked several pits around Howe Bridge. The company was known as John Fletcher and Others. The company developed the Howe Bridge Collieries and sank three shafts in the 1840s when James Fletcher was the manager, the family acquired land and property in Atherton and between 1867 and 1878 Ralph Fletcher controlled the business. Abraham Burrows became a partner in 1872 and the company became Fletcher Burrows, John Burrows was the companys agent from 1878 to 1900 when Leonard Fletcher took over. In 1916 Clement Fletcher took over and remained with the company for 45 years, the houses were designed by a Dutch architect. And some properties at Howe Bridge are now part of a conservation area, a public bathhouse, shops and a social club were part of the village. The workers, some of them pit brow women who worked on the pit brow screens sorting coal, were provided with hampers or turkeys at Christmas by the company, the Fletchers also contributed to the cost of St Michael and all Angels Church at Howe Bridge in 1877. In 1867 company employee Edward Ormerod developed and patented the Ormerod safety link or detaching hook, the company was a supporter in setting up the first Mines Rescue Station in Lancashire at Howe Bridge in 1908. In 1921 Heath Robinson visited the pits and was commissioned to produce its 1922 calendar. Colliers who worked for the Fletchers were entitled to free ale at the end of their shifts at the Wheatsheaf, in 1774 coal was sold for 2d. A basket but the price had risen to 5d. by 1805, the largest of the early pits owned by the Fletchers which eventually became the Howe Bridge Collieries were Lovers Lane Colliery which lasted until 1898 and the Eckersley Fold pits. The Crombouke Day-Eye, a mine or adit dates from the 1840s when a drift was driven into the Crombouke. The Crombouke and Eckersley Fold pits closed in 1907, the company sank the deep mines of Howe Bridge Colliery in 1845

8. Harrison Ainslie – From a 21st-century perspective, they are more interesting as the last operators of charcoal-fired blast furnaces in Great Britain. Their furnaces were stone-built, water-powered, and much smaller than the furnaces of the same era. Associated companies were the Hampshire Haematite Iron Co, Melfort Gunpowder Co, Lorn Furnace Co, Newland Furnace was built in 1747 by Richard Ford, William Ford, Michael Knott and James Backhouse. Richard Ford was born in Middlewich in 1697 and he was active in the Furness iron industry from 1722 as manager of Cunsey forge and a partner in Nibthwaite furnace. The partnership agreement at Nibthwaite prevented Richard Ford from building an ironworks within 10 miles, so the lease was taken in the name of his sister, Agnes Bordley. Agnes first bought Newland corn mill to secure the rights before applying to the Duke of Montagu for a lease on what is now the hamlet of Newland. The company prospered under Richard Ford’s management, James Backhouse’s quarter share was worth £2000 when he sold it to William Ford in 1761. William Ford managed the company until his death in 1768, john Dixon was the managing partner from 1770 to 1775. George Knott inherited Michael Knott’s share of the company and married Catherine Ford, with a majority shareholding, he was managing partner from 1775 until his death in 1784. Matthew Harrison was appointed manager in 1784. In 1812 he bought the Knott family’s share of the company for £34,000, dr Henry Ainslie married Agnes Ford. He held shares in the ships, but his main career was as a London physician. Matthew Harrison died in 1824, leaving the management of the company to Benson Harrison the elder, Richard Roper, of Backbarrow, joined the company as a clerk in 1815. In 1820 he bought a share of the company, by the time of his death in 1860 he lived at Gawithfield and gave his occupation as ironmaster. He was a partner in the company, particularly as shipowner. It was decided to turn Harrison Ainslie into a company in 1890. W G Ainslie was named as manager, but did not live to take an active part, the main shareholder in the limited company was Walter Dowson. He held 60% of the shares as trustee under the will of Benson Harrison, the limited company was in receivership in 1903

9. Haydock Collieries – Haydock Collieries was a colliery company situated in and around Haydock on the Lancashire Coalfield which is now in Merseyside, England. The shallow coal measures in the area had been worked from at least the 18th century when the landowners were the Leghs of Lyme. Around 1830, the collieries were run by Thomas Legh and William Turner and had a tramway connection to the Sankey Canal. Richard Evans, a printer from Paternoster Row in London, bought a share in Edge Green Colliery in Golborne in 1830, in 1831 the collieries were connected to the growing railway network by a branch line to the Warrington and Newton Railway at Newton Junction. Evans bought Leghs share of Turner and Leghs business, which took the title Turner & Evans. When Turner died, in 1847, Evans acquired his share, the company remained in Evans family ownership until 1889 when it became a public limited company which it remained until the formation of the National Coal Board in 1947. The collieries had access to coal reserves but the workings were subject to flooding. Ram Pit sunk in 1901 never went into production because of flooding, some collieries were connected underground to rationalise winding operations and facilitate ventilation. In 1890 eight collieries were working, Four of the companys collieries survived to become part of the National Coal Board in 1947. They were Golborne, Lyme Pits, Wood Pit and Old Boston employing a total of 3,195 underground and 557 surface workers, the NCBs St. Helens Area Central Workshops were at Haydock until 1963. Richard Evans married Mary, daughter of Thomas Smith of Portsmouth and they had six children, Richard, Anne, Joseph, Ruth, Josiah and Henry. Joseph and Josiah followed their father into the business, the company owned several collieries in and around Haydock. Among them were, Brynn Brynn Pit opened around 1870 and lasted until 1919, Downhall Green Downhall Green commenced winding in 1860 and lasted for 25 years. Edge Green Pit opened before 1849 and finished winding coal in 1920, Engine Engine Pit began winding in 1853 and finished in 1854. Golborne Colliery Golborne Colliery was started by Edward Johnson in 1878 and bought by Evans and it was still working 100 years later. In 1975 nearly 1000 men worked at the pit taking coal from the Crombouke, Lower Florida, Haydock Colliery After the colliery closed, its workshops became the NCB Workshops. Its single-cylinder beam engine, used to drive the machinery until 1954, has been preserved, King Pit King Pit opened in 1891. It was connected underground to the Princess, Queen and Legh Pits, Legh The Legh Pit opened in 1855 and closed in 1911

10. Hulton Colliery Company – The company had its origins in small coal mines on the northern part of the Hulton Park estate in 1571 owned by the Hultons who had held the estate from medieval times. His orders led to the Peterloo Massacre in 1819, in 1843 Hulton paid his colliers the poorest wages in Lancashire. He remained opposed to permitting the right to assembly and was vehemently opposed to miners congregating with the object of forming a union. Hultons pits thrived and in the 1820s were connected to the Bolton, by 1840 there were pits situated to the north of the Manchester to Preston road and west of the Bolton to Leigh road and Hulton Lane. Hulton established the Hulton Colliery Company in 1858 with a partner, after Hultons death in 1864 his son, William F. Hulton succeeded him and became the sole owner in 1868 when the partnership was dissolved. The company sank pits near Chequerbent, the Arley Pits and the School Pit were sunk north of the Manchester road and older workings were abandoned. The new pits were linked to the Bolton and Leigh Railway line at Pendlebury Fold where the company built brickworks, William Ford Hulton died in 1879 and was succeeded by William W. B. Hulton who sold his rights to the Hulton Colliery Company Ltd. The company expanded, and sank the shafts for Chequerbent Colliery to the east of the railway line and south of the Manchester road in 1892

11. Myles Burton Kennedy – Myles Burton Kennedy was a Furness ironmaster, proprietor of Roanhead mines and chairman of the North Lonsdale Iron & Steel Co. Myles B Kennedys grandfather was Charles Storr Kennedy who, with Henry Kennedy of Brighton held 4 X 1/18th shares in the Ulverston Mining Company when it was established in 1838, CS Kennedys shares were sold to Alexander Brogden before 1857. By then he had taken leases on Green Haume, Mackinon, greenhaume was soon exhausted and the Askham mine was lost in the legal dispute, Wakefield v Buccleuch, but Roanhead was a winner. The first Myles Kenedy was born at Fair View in 1835 and he was educated at the Royal School of Mines. He married Margaret Rowley in 1861 and had 15 children and he was also a captain in the volunteer corps. Charles Storr Kennedy died in 1857 and his sons Charles Burton and his brother commissioned Stone Cross in 1874 and was made vice chairman of the North Lonsdale Ironworks Co at its inauguration in 1873. He also became chairman of the Whitehaven Haematite Iron Co and he was managing owner of the steam ketch Harvest from 1890. On his death he was succeeded as proprietor of Roanhead mines by his son, in his youth he played football and cricket for Ulverston and was vice president of the hound trail association at its inauguration. Myles Kennedy, PM, PPCV, he laid the stone of Ulverston masonic lodge on 31st Oct.1905. He was a JP and opened Ulverston Coronation Hall in 1904 He was a commander in the volunteer corps and managed a shooting range at Sandscale Haws He served as High Sheriff of Lancashire

12. Lambton Collieries – Lambton Collieries was a privately owned colliery and coal mining company, based in County Durham, England. The name derives from Lambton Castle, the family home of the Lambton family. With coal having been extracted in the area from the 1600s, the first of seven pits was sunk in the village of Bournmoor from 1783 onwards, which together were to make up what was known as Lambton Colliery. The company was first formed when Lambtons grandson, John Lambton the first Earl of Durham, the formal name change to Lambton Collieries was adopted in 1896. In 1910 the company merged with Hetton Collieries to form Lambton & Hetton Collieries, in 1924, that company merged with Joicey Collieries to form Lambton, Hetton & Joicey Collieries. In 1947, along all of the other private coal companies of the United Kingdom. To enable the coal extracted from the collieries to be transported to the River Wear, in 1819 the Lambtons bought the Newbottle wagonway, and connected this to the Lambton Railway with a line between Bournmoor and Philadelphia. This now meant that the company had a route from its collieries to the River Wear. The company went steam powered from 1814, initially with a series of 0-6-0T locomotives, however, due to the steepness of the route over Warden Law, which lies 570 feet above sea level, the route was worked as a rope-incline with stationary engines until 1864. By 1860, the Lambton was the largest of all the railways in the northeast, totalling across its mainline. Still mainly rope-incline worked and developed from original horse-drawn tramways, in the next 20 years it was reengineered to be mainly steam locomotive powered, in 1854 the North Eastern Railway was formed, which gave it control of the mainline from Darlington to Newcastle via the Leamside Line. This resulted in the company buying a new series of 0-6-0 tender locomotives to power these heavier mainline trains and this was still mainly a rope-incline railway, which was made redundant through access to the Lambton Railway. The company did however additionally connect Lambton staithes to the Hetton staithes within the docks, in 1924 after the merger with Joicey Collieries, the company gained control of the Beamish Railway, although this remained a separate operation. In 1959 the Hetton Railway via Warden Law was closed, a further spate of closures occurred in 1967 with Lambton Staithes being closed in January and the line to Pallion closing in August of the same year. Lambton Collieries at the Durham Mining Museum Lambton Locomotives Trust

13. Minera Lead Mines – The Minera Lead Mines were a mining operation and are now a country park and tourist centre in the village of Minera near Wrexham, in Wrexham County Borough, Wales. The first written record of mining at Minera dates back to 1296. Not all of them vacated the area, however, as mining went on until the Black Death in 1349, when it ended. In 1527, two men bought the rights to mine on the site, but deeper workings were unworkable due to the presence of underground rivers, and the inability to prevent flooding. The inability to pay for steam engines to pump out water closed the mines again until 1845 and they were able to build a stationary steam engine on site, and also blast caves from down in the valley into the mines, for extra drainage. The steam engine was a Cornish engine, typical for stationary engines at the time, John Taylor & Sons had used a £30,000 investment at the time, yet the profits for 1864 alone were £60,000. By 1900, the price of lead and zinc had fallen dramatically, the stationary steam engine stopped work in 1909. The owners sold off the mines and all assets by 1914, for transport, the Mines had their own railway branch line, which connected with the end of the Wrexham and Minera Branch at Minera Limeworks. The mines also had their own locomotive, a Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST Henrietta. The lead ore would be taken to Wrexham for transport nationally, the line was dismantled when the mines closed, as the line was privately owned, however were rebuilt to serve nearby clay pits. Plans to build a tourist narrow gauge railway on the line were made in the 1990s, a visitor Centre was opened for public use, and the engine house is part of a tour. It is a site of tourism for Wrexham County Borough Council, in 2004, the site was attacked by vandals, but this was repaired by the council in 2005. Minera Lead Mines – official museum site The Story of Minera Lead Mines – Wrexham County Borough Council

14. National Coal Board – The National Coal Board was the statutory corporation created to run the nationalised coal mining industry in the United Kingdom. Set up under the Coal Industry Nationalisation Act 1946, it took over the United Kingdoms collieries on vesting day,1 January 1947, in 1987 the NCB was renamed the British Coal Corporation, and its assets were subsequently privatised. Collieries were taken under government control during the First and Second World Wars, the Sankey Commission in 1919 gave R. H. Tawney, Sidney Webb and Sir Leo Chiozza Money the opportunity to advocate nationalisation, but it was rejected. Coal reserves were nationalised during the war in 1942 and placed under the control of the Coal Commission, at the time, many coal companies were small, although some consolidation had taken place in the years before the war. The NCB was one of a number of public corporations created by Clement Attlees post-war Labour government to manage nationalised industries, the Coal Industry Nationalisation Act received the Royal Assent on 12 July 1946 and the NCB was formally constituted on 15 July, with Lord Hyndley as its chairman. On 1 January 1947 a notice posted at every colliery in the country read, open cast operations were taken over on 1 April 1952. The NCB acquired 958 collieries, the property of about 800 companies. Compensation of £164,660,000 was paid to the owners for the collieries and £78,457,000 to former owners, the board also took over power stations at some collieries and railway sidings. It managed an estate of more than 140,000 houses, at its inception the NCB employed nearly 800,000 workers which was four percent of Britains total workforce. Its national headquarters were established in Hobart House, London, the collieries it had acquired varied considerably in size and output. Coal was mined from seams that varied from 20 to 200 inches thick, more than a third of collieries produced less than 100,000 tons and 50 collieries produced more than 700,000 tons. The coal board divided the country into divisions corresponding to the major coalfields, in 1947 about half the collieries were in need of immediate attention and a development programme was begun. The Plan for Coal produced in 1950 aimed at increasing output from 184 million to 250 million tons by 1970, competition from cheap oil imports arrived in the late 1950s and from 1957 the coal industry began to contract. Colliery closures between 1958 and 1959 numbered 85, from 700,000 men producing 207 million tons of coal in 1956, output was 133 million tons produced by fewer than 290,000 workers at 292 collieries in 1971. As competition from oil increased, the government stopped subsidising the industry in the mid-1960s, when Alf Robens became chairman in 1960, he determined that the NCBs output would be from the best and most productive pits. During his ten-year tenure productivity increased by 70 percent but with far fewer pits, in 1967 the NCB reorganised its structure into 17 new areas each employing about 20,000 men and planned to operate 310 collieries in 1971. By 1983 the NCB would invest £3,000 million on developing new collieries, the strike was one of the longest and most bitter in history and cost more than £7 billion of tax-payers money. During the strike the NCB lost markets and 23 collieries had closed before the end of 1985, on 5 March 1987 the Coal Industry Act 1987 received Royal Assent signalling the end of the NCB and the formation of its successor, the British Coal Corporation

15. Roanhead – The Irish Sea lies to the west of Roanhead, whilst the Duddon Estuary and Walney Channel are due north and south respectively. The beach is noted for its abundance of sand dunes and strong, today the beach is a National Trust conservation area, and a two-mile stretch of the Cumbria Coastal Way runs through it. There are signs of shotholes on Roanhead Crag, indicating that, like Dunnerholme, there is a small limekiln near the National Trust depot, one of two on the estate. Myles Kennedy leased the rights from Thomas Sandys in 1852. There may have been an earlier takenote but there is no sign of mining on the Roanhead estate on the 1850 OS map. The firm of Kennedy Brothers worked the mines until the last of the ore was taken from Nigel pit in July 1942 The Nigel mine alone is said to have produced 11 million tons of ore and it was one of several deposits on the estate. The farmhouse was moved to its present site shortly after the discovery of the Nigel deposit in 1902, the mines left a series of subsidence craters which are now flooded. Along with the left by Park mines, they are managed as fishing ponds by Furness Fishing Association. List of beaches Environment Agency, Roan Head Bathing Water Profile

16. Sandscale Haws – Sandscale Haws is a national nature reserve on the Duddon Estuary, Cumbria, England. It is managed by the National Trust, resident species include the natterjack toad. Sandscale brick and tile works appears on the 1850 Ordnance Survey map, the Sandscale Mining Company was formed in 1877 by members of the Millom & Askham Company. The lease was signed by the then landowner Thomas Woodburne, Thomas Woodburne also built Sandscale cottages in 1882, which were rented to the mine captains. The mines were taken over by Kennedy Brothers in 1893 and worked until 1905, the steam pumping engine was replaced by an electric pump in 1928. The headgear was removed and the shaft covered in 1937, myles Burton Kennedy trained the local yeomanry here, the range can be seen on the 1905 OS map. During the war, the dunes were used as a decoy site, in 1954 the estate was bought by British Cellophane who built the present farmhouse and demolished the old one. Shortly before BCL Barrow was closed, the present nature reserve was sold to the National Trust by Courtaulds, the reserves sand dunes support a population of natterjack toads. The species, which is rare in Britain, is adapted to breed in ephemeral waterbodies. Another amphibian present is the crested newt. Sandscale Haws was formerly a separate Site of Special Scientific Interest and it is also protected under the European Union´s Directives relating to wildlife and nature conservation. The Duddon Estuary is a Special Protection Area under the Birds Directive, Sandscale Haws provides high tide roosts for waders and wildfowl. + National nature reserves in Cumbria NT website Map sources for Sandscale Haws

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